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email page print page All Topic Reviews A Theory of Feelings Anger and Forgiveness Philosophizing Madness from Nietzsche to Derrida "My Madness Saved Me" 10 Good Questions about Life and Death 12 Modern Philosophers 50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a God A Cabinet of Philosophical Curiosities A Case for Irony A Companion to Bioethics A Companion to Buddhist Philosophy A Companion to Foucault A Companion to Genethics A Companion to Genethics A Companion to Hume A Companion to Kant A Companion to Phenomenology and Existentialism A Companion to Pragmatism A Companion to the Philosophy of Action A Companion to the Philosophy of Biology A Companion to the Philosophy of Literature A Conceptual History of Psychology A Critical Overview of Biological Functions A Critique of Naturalistic Philosophies of Mind A Cursing Brain? A Delicate Balance A Farewell to Alms A Fragile Life A Frightening Love A Future for Presentism A Guide to the Good Life A History of Psychiatry A History of the Mind A Life Worth Living A Manual of Experimental Philosophy A Map of the Mind A Metaphysics of Psychopathology A Mind So Rare A Minimal Libertarianism A Natural History of Human Morality A Natural History of Human Thinking A Natural History of Vision A Parliament of Minds A Philosopher Looks at The Sense of Humor A Philosophical Disease A Philosophy for the Science of Well-Being A Philosophy of Boredom A Philosophy of Cinematic Art A Philosophy of Culture A Philosophy of Emptiness A Philosophy of Fear A Philosophy of Pain A Physicalist Manifesto A Place for Consciousness A Question of Trust A Research Agenda for DSM-V A Revolution of the Mind A Sentimentalist Theory of the Mind A Stroll With William James A Tapestry of Values A Tear is an Intellectual Thing A Theory of Freedom A Thousand Machines A Universe of Consciousness A Very Bad Wizard A Very Bad Wizard: Morality Behind the Curtain A Virtue Epistemology A World Full of Gods A World Without Values About Face About the Beginning of the Hermeneutics of the Self Action and Responsibility Action in Context Action Theory, Rationality and Compulsion Action, Contemplation, and Happiness Action, Emotion and Will Adam Smith Adaptive Dynamics Addiction Addiction Addiction and Responsibility Addiction and Self-Control Addiction Is a Choice Advances in Identity Theory and Research Aftermath Afterwar Against Adaptation Against Autonomy Against Bioethics Against Happiness Against Health Against Marriage Agency and Action Agency and Answerability Agency and Embodiment Agency and Responsibility Agency, Freedom, and Moral Responsibility Al-Junun Alain Badiou Alain Badiou Alasdair MacIntyre Alien Landscapes? Altered Egos Ambivalence An Anthology of Psychiatric Ethics An Ethics for Today An Intellectual History of Cannibalism An Interpretation of Desire An Introduction to Ethics An Introduction to Kant's Moral Philosophy An Introduction to Philosophy of Education An Introduction to the Philosophy of Mind An Introduction to the Philosophy of Mind An Introduction to the Philosophy of Psychology An Introductory Philosophy of Medicine An Odd Kind of Fame Analytic Freud Analytic Philosophy in America Ancient Anger Ancient Models of Mind Ancient Philosophy of the Self Anger Animal Lessons Animal Minds Animals Like Us Annihilation Another Planet Answers for Aristotle Anti-Externalism Anti-Individualism and Knowledge Antigone’s Claim Antipsychiatry Are We Hardwired? Are Women Human? Arguing about Disability Arguing About Human Nature Aristotle and the Philosophy of Friendship Aristotle on Practical Wisdom Aristotle's Children Aristotle's Ethics and Moral Responsibility Aristotle, Emotions, and Education Art & Morality Art After Conceptual Art Art in Three Dimensions Art, Self and Knowledge Artificial Consciousness Artificial Happiness Aspects of Psychologism Asylum to Action At the Existentialist Café Atonement and Forgiveness Attention is Cognitive Unison Autobiography as Philosophy Autonomy Autonomy and Mental Disorder Autonomy and the Challenges to Liberalism Babies by Design Backsliding Badiou Badiou's Deleuze Badiou, Balibar, Ranciere: Rethinking Emancipation Bare Facts And Naked Truths Basic Desert, Reactive Attitudes and Free Will Battlestar Galactica and Philosophy Be Like the Fox Beauty Becoming a Subject Becoming Human Before Consciousness Behaving Behavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic Era Being Amoral Being Human Being Mentally Ill: A Sociological Theory Being No One Being Realistic about Reasons Being Reduced Being Yourself Belief's Own Ethics Bending Over Backwards Berlin Childhood around 1900 Bernard Williams Bertrand Russell Best Explanations Better than Both Better Than Well Between Two Worlds Beyond Health Beyond Hegel and Nietzsche Beyond Kuhn Beyond Loss Beyond Melancholy Beyond Moral Judgment Beyond Postmodernism Beyond Reduction Beyond Schizophrenia Beyond the DSM Story Bioethics Bioethics and the Brain Bioethics in the Clinic Biological Complexity and Integrative Pluralism Biology Is Technology Bios Bipolar Expeditions Blackwell Companion to the Philosophy of Education Blindsight & The Nature of Consciousness Blues - Philosophy for Everyone Blush Bob Dylan and Philosophy Body Consciousness Body Image And Body Schema Body Images Body Language Body Matters Body Work Body-Subjects and Disordered Minds Bound Boundaries of the Mind Boyle Brain Evolution and Cognition Brain Fiction Brain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive Science Brain-Wise Brainchildren Brains, Buddhas, and Believing Brainstorming Brave New Worlds Breakdown of Will Brief Child Therapy Homework Planner Brief Inquiry into the Meaning of Sin and Faith Brief Therapy Homework Planner Britain on the Couch British Idealism and the Concept of the Self Brute Rationality Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Philosophy But Is It Art? Camus and Sartre Cartesian Linguistics Cartographies of the Mind Carving Nature at Its Joints Case Studies in Biomedical Research Ethics Cassandra's Daughter Cato's Tears Causation and Counterfactuals Causes, Laws, and Free Will Changing Conceptions of the Child from the Renaissance to Post-Modernity Changing the Subject Chaosophy Character and Moral Psychology Character as Moral Fiction Charles Darwin Cherishment Childhood and the Philosophy of Education Children Children, Families, and Health Care Decision Making Choices and Conflict Choosing Not to Choose Christmas - Philosophy for Everyone Cinema, Philosophy, Bergman Cinematic Mythmaking City and Soul in Plato's Republic Classifying Madness Clear and Queer Thinking Clinical Ethics Clinical Psychiatry in Imperial Germany Codependent Forevermore Coffee - Philosophy for Everyone Cognition and the Brain Cognition of Value in Aristotle's Ethics Cognition Through Understanding: Self-Knowledge, Interlocution, Reasoning, Reflection Cognitive Biology Cognitive Fictions Cognitive Neuroscience of Emotion Cognitive Systems and the Extended Mind Cognitive Systems and the Extended Mind Cognitive Theories of Mental Illness Coherence in Thought and Action Collected Papers, Volume 1 Collected Papers, Volume 2 College Sex Comedy Incarnate Commitment Communicative Action and Rational Choice Compassionate Moral Realism Competence, Condemnation, and Commitment Concealment And Exposure Concepts and Causes in the Philosophy of Disease Conceptual Analysis and Philosophical Naturalism Conceptual Art and Painting Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology Confessions Confucianism Connected, or What It Means to Live in the Network Society Conquest of Abundance Conscience and Convenience Consciousness Consciousness Consciousness Consciousness Consciousness Consciousness and Fundamental Reality Consciousness and Its Place in Nature Consciousness and Language Consciousness and Mental Life Consciousness and Mind Consciousness and the Novel Consciousness and the Self Consciousness Emerging Consciousness Evolving Consciousness Explained Consciousness in Action Consciousness Recovered Consciousness Revisited Consciousness, Color, and Content Console and Classify Constructing the World Constructive Analysis Contemporary Debates In Applied Ethics Contemporary Debates in Moral Theory Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Biology Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Mind Contemporary Debates in Political Philosophy Contemporary Debates in Social Philosophy Contemporary Perspectives on Natural Law Contested Knowledge: Social Theory Today Contesting Psychiatry Context and the Attitudes Continental Philosophy of Science Control Controlling Our Destinies Conversations About Psychology and Sexual Orientation Copernicus, Darwin and Freud Crazy for You Creating a Life of Meaning and Compassion Creating Consilience Creating Hysteria Creating Mental Illness Creating Scientific Concepts Creating the American Junkie Creation, Rationality and Autonomy Creatures Like Us? Crime and Culpability Crime, Punishment, and Mental Illness Crimes of Reason Critical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Critical Psychiatry Critical Psychology Critical Resistance Critical Thinking About Psychology Critical Visions Cross and Khora Cruel Compassion CTRL [SPACE] Cultural Psychology of the Self Cultural Theory: An Introduction Culture and Psychiatric Diagnosis Culture and Subjective Well-Being Culture of Death Cultures of Neurasthenia Curious Emotions Current Controversies in Experimental Philosophy Current Controversies in Values and Science Custom and Reason in Hume Customers and Patrons of the Mad-Trade Cutting God in Half - And Putting the Pieces Together Again Cylons in America Damaged Identities Damasio's Error and Descartes' Truth Dangerous Emotions Daniel Dennett Daniel Dennett Dark Ages Darwin and Design Darwin's Dangerous Idea Darwin's Legacy Darwin, God and the Meaning of Life Darwinian Psychiatry Darwinian Reductionism Darwinizing Culture Dating: Philosophy for Everyone Death Death Death and Character Death and Compassion Death and the Afterlife Debating Design Debating Humanism Decision Making, Personhood and Dementia Decomposing the Will Deconstructing Psychotherapy Deconstruction and Democracy Deeper Than Darwin Deeper than Reason Defending Science - within Reason Defining Psychopathology in the 21st Century Degrees of Belief Deleuze and the Concepts of Cinema Delusion and Self-Deception Delusions and Other Irrational Beliefs Delusions and the Madness of the Masses Dementia Demons, Dreamers, and Madmen Dennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative Self Dennett’s Philosophy Depression Is a Choice Depression, Emotion and the Self Depth Derrida, Deleuze, Psychoanalysis Descartes Descartes and the Passionate Mind Descartes' Cogito Descartes's Changing Mind Descartes's Concept of Mind Describing Inner Experience? Descriptions and Prescriptions Desembodied Spirits and Deanimated Bodies Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974) Desire and Affect Desire, Love, and Identity Desire, Practical Reason, and the Good Developing the Virtues Diagnosing the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Dialectics of the Self Did My Neurons Make Me Do It? Difference and Identity Digital Soul Dimensional Models of Personality Disorders Disability, Difference, Discrimination Disjunctivism Disorders of Volition Disorientation and Moral Life Dispatches from the Freud Wars Disrupted Lives Distraction Disturbed Consciousness Divided Minds and Successive Selves Do Apes Read Minds? Do Fish Feel Pain? Do We Still Need Doctors? Does Consciousness Cause Behavior? Does the Woman Exist? Doing without Concepts Don't be Fooled Don't Believe Everything You Think Donald Davidson Donald Davidson on Truth, Meaning, and the Mental Doubting Darwin? Down Girl Dreaming and Other Involuntary Mentation DSM-IV Sourcebook DSM-IV Sourcebook DSM-IV-TR Casebook Dworkin and His Critics Dying to Know Dynamics in Action Dysthymia and the Spectrum of Chronic Depressions Eccentrics Educational Metamorphoses Effective Intentions Elbow Room: The Varieties of Free Will Worth Wanting Embodied Minds in Action Embodied Rhetorics Embodied Selves and Divided Minds Embryos under the Microscope Emergencies in Mental Health Practice Emerging Conceptual, Ethical and Policy Issues in Bionanotechnology Emotion Emotion and Consciousness Emotion and Psyche Emotion Experience Emotion Regulation Emotion, Evolution, And Rationality Emotional Intelligence Emotional Reason Emotional Reason Emotional Truth Emotions in Humans and Artifacts Emotions in the Moral Life Emotions in the Moral Life Emotions, Value, and Agency Empathy Empathy and Agency Empathy and Moral Development Empathy and Morality Empathy in the Context of Philosophy Empirical Ethics in Psychiatry Enactivist Interventions Enchanted Looms Engaging Buddhism Engineering the Human Germline Enjoyment Envy Epicureanism Epistemic Luck Epistemology Epistemology and Emotions Epistemology and the Psychology of Human Judgment Eros and the Good Erotic Morality Essays in Social Neuroscience Essays in the Metaphysics of Mind Essays on Derek Parfit's On What Matters Essays on Free Will and Moral Responsibility Essays on Nonconceptual Content Essays on Philosophical Counseling Essays on Reference, Language, and Mind Essays on the Concept of Mind in Early-Modern Philosophy Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness Esssential Philosophy of Psychiatry Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind Ethical Conflicts in Psychology Ethical Issues in Forensic Mental Health Research Ethical Issues in Human Cloning Ethical Theory Ethics Ethics Ethics and the A Priori Ethics and the Metaphysics of Medicine Ethics and Values in Psychotherapy Ethics Done Right Ethics Expertise Ethics in Plain English Ethics in Practice Ethics in Psychiatric Research Ethics of Psychiatry Ethics without Ontology European Review of Philosophy. Vol. 5 Everyday Irrationality Evil in Modern Thought Evolution Evolution and the Human Mind Evolution's Rainbow Evolutionary Origins of Morality Evolutionary Psychology Examined Life Examined Lives Existential America Existentialism Existentialism and Romantic Love Experimental Philosophy Experimental Philosophy Experimental Philosophy Experimental Philosophy, Rationalism, and Naturalism Experiments in Ethics Explaining Consciousness Explaining the Brain Explaining the Computational Mind Explanatory Pluralism Exploding the Gene Myth Exploring Happiness Exploring the Self Expression and the Inner Expressions of Judgment Extraordinary Science and Psychiatry Faces of Intention Fact and Value Fact and Value in Emotion Facts and Values Facts, Values, and Norms Fads and Fallacies in the Social Sciences Faith and Wisdom in Science Fatherhood Fear of Knowledge Fearless Speech Feeling Pain and Being in Pain Feelings and Emotions Feelings of Being Fellow-Feeling and the Moral Life Feminism and Its Discontents Feminism and Philosophy of Science Feminist Ethics and Social and Political Philosophy Feminist Interpretations of Rene Descartes Feminist Theory Field Notes from Elsewhere Finding Consciousness in the Brain Fingerprints of God Flesh in the Age of Reason Folk Psychological Narratives Folk Psychology Re-Assessed Forces of Habit Forgiveness Forgiveness and Love Forgiveness and Retribution Foucault 2.0 Foucault and Philosophy Foucault Now Foucault, Psychology and the Analytics of Power Foundational Issues in Human Brain Mapping Foundations of Ethical Practice, Research, and Teaching in Psychology Four Views on Free Will Frank Ramsey (1903-1930) Free Will Free Will Free Will Free Will Free Will and Action Explanation Free Will and Luck Free Will And Moral Responsibility Free Will as an Open Scientific Problem Free Will, Agency, and Meaning in Life Free: Why Science Hasn't Disproved Free Will Freedom Freedom and Determinism Freedom And Neurobiology Freedom and Responsibilty Freedom and Value Freedom Evolves Freedom Regained Freedom vs. Intervention Freedom, Fame, Lying, and Betrayal Freud Freud and the Question of Pseudoscience Freud As Philosopher Freud's Answer Freud, the Reluctant Philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche From Chance to Choice From Clinic to Classroom From Complexity to Life From Enlightenment to Receptivity From Knowledge to Wisdom: A Revolution for Science and the Humanities From Morality to Mental Health From Passions to Emotions From Philosophy to Psychotherapy From Valuing to Value Frontiers of Consciousness Frontiers of Justice Furnishing the Mind Galileo in Pittsburgh Gender Gender and Mental Health Gender in the Mirror Gender Trouble Genes Genes, Women, Equality Genetic Nature/Culture Genetic Prospects Genetic Prospects Genetic Secrets Genocide's Aftermath Genomes and What to Make of Them German Idealism and the Jew German Philosophy Getting Hooked Gilles Deleuze Global Philosophy Gluttony God and Phenomenal Consciousness Goffman's Legacy Going Amiss in Experimental Research Goodness & Advice Grassroots Spirituality Grave Matters Grave Matters Greed Greek Models of Mind and Self Gut Reactions Habilitation, Health, and Agency Habits of Mind Hallucination Handbook of Bioethics Handbook of Emotions Happiness Happiness Happiness Happiness Happiness and Education Happiness and the Good Life Happiness Is Overrated Happiness, Death, and the Remainder of Life Hard Luck Harmful Thoughts Having the World in View Healing Psychiatry Healing the Soul in the Age of the Brain Health, Illness and Disease Health, Science, and Ordinary Language Hegel Heidegger and a Metaphysics of Feeling Heidegger, Metaphysics and the Univocity of Being Hermann von Helmholtz's Mechanism Hermeneutics As Politics Heterophobia Heterosyncracies Heuristics and Biases Heuristics and the Law Hidden Resources Hidden Selves Hiding from Humanity High Art Lite Historical Ontology History of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology History, Historicity And Science Hobbes Homosexualities Hope and Dread in Psychoanalysis Hot Thought How Can I Be Trusted? How Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe? How Children Learn the Meanings of Words How Could Conscious Experiences Affect Brains? How Do We Know Who We Are? How Emotions Work How Emotions Work How History Made the Mind How Images Think How is Nature Possible? How Propaganda Works How Science Works How Scientific Practices Matter How Scientists Explain Disease How The Body Shapes The Mind How the Body Shapes the Way We Think How the Mind Explains Behavior How the Mind Uses the Brain How to Be a Stoic How to Make Opportunity Equal How to Solve the Mind-Body Problem how to stop time How to Think More About Sex How We Hope How We Reason Human Cloning Human Development, Language and the Future of Mankind Human Enhancement Human Evolution, Reproduction, and Morality Human Goodness Human Identity and Bioethics Human Nature Human Nature Human Nature and the Limits of Science Human-Built World Humanism Humanism, What's That? Humanity Humans, Animals, Machines Hume Hume Hume on Motivation and Virtue Hume's True Scepticism Hume’s Moral Philosophy and Contemporary Psychology Husserl Hystories I of the Vortex I Was Wrong Ideas that Matter Identifying the Mind Identity and Agency in Cultural Worlds Ignorance and Imagination Illness Imagination and Its Pathologies Imagination and the Meaningful Brain Imagining Numbers Immortal Remains Improving Nature? In Defense of an Evolutionary Concept of Health In Defense of Sentimentality In Love With Life In Praise of Athletic Beauty In Praise of Desire In Praise of Natural Philosophy In Praise of the Whip In Pursuit of Happiness In Search of Happiness In the Name of God In the Name of Identity In the Space of Reasons In the Swarm In Two Minds Inclusive Ethics Incompatibilism's Allure Individual Differences in Conscious Experience Infinity and Perspective Information Arts Informed Consent in Medical Research Ingmar Bergman, Cinematic Philosopher Inhuman Thoughts Inner Presence Insanity Integrating Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy Integrity and the Fragile Self Intelligent Virtue Intention Intentionality, Deliberation and Autonomy Intentions and Intentionality Intentions and Intentionality Interpreting Minds Interpreting Nietzsche Introducing Greek Philosophy Introspection and Consciousness Introspection Vindicated Intuition, Imagination, and Philosophical Methodology Intuitionism Investigating the Psychological World Irrationality Irrationality Is Academic Feminism Dead? Is It Me or My Meds? Is Long-Term Therapy Unethical? Is Oedipus Online? Is Science Neurotic? Is Science Value Free? Is the Visual World a Grand Illusion? Is There a Duty to Die? Issues in Philosophical Counseling Jacques Lacan Jacques Rancière Jacques Ranciere Jean-Paul Sartre John McDowell John Searle John Searle's Ideas About Social Reality John Stuart Mill John Stuart Mill and the Writing of Character Joint Attention Jokes Jonathan Edwards Judging and Understanding Justice for Children Justice in Robes Justice, Luck, and Knowledge Kant Kant and Milton Kant and the Fate of Autonomy Kant and the Limits of Autonomy Kant and the Role of Pleasure in Moral Action Kant on Freedom, Law, and Happiness Kant on Moral Autonomy Kant's Anatomy of Evil Kant's Anatomy of the Intelligent Mind Kant's Theory of Virtue Karl Jaspers Karl Popper Karl Popper, Science and Enlightenment Key Concepts in Philosophy Kierkegaard Kierkegaard as Phenomenologist Kierkegaard's Concept of Despair Kierkegaard's Muse Kinds of Minds Kinds, Things, and Stuff Knowing, Knowledge and Beliefs Knowledge Monopolies Knowledge, Belief, and Character Knowledge, Possibility, and Consciousness Lacan Lack of Character Lack of Character Language Language in Context Language, Consciousness, Culture Language, Culture, and Mind Language, Vision, and Music Law and the Brain Law, Liberty, and Psychiatry Laws, Mind, and Free Will Leaving You Lectures on the History of Political Philosophy Levelling the Playing Field Liberal Education in a Knowledge Society Liberatory Psychiatry Life and Action Life at the Texas State Lunatic Asylum, 1857-1997 Life Is Not a Game of Perfect Life of the Mind Life's Form Life, Death, & Meaning Life, Death, and Meaning: Key Philosophical Readings on the Big Questions Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Utility Life, Sex, and Ideas Light in the Dark Room Like a Splinter in Your Mind Living and Dying Well Living Narrative Living Outside Mental Illness Living with Darwin Living With One’s Past Locke Locke Locke Logic and the Art of Memory Loneliness in Philosophy, Psychology, and Literature Looking for Spinoza Looking for The Stranger Lost in Dialogue Lost Souls LOT 2 Love Love Love's Confusions Love's Vision Love, Friendship, and the Self Love, Sex & Tragedy Lucky Ludwig Wittgenstein Lust Lying Machine Consciousness Mad for Foucault Mad Travelers Made with Words Madness And Death In Philosophy Madness and Democracy Madness at Home Madness Is Civilization Making Natural Knowledge Making Sense of Evolution Making Sense of Freedom and Responsibility Making the DSM-5 Making the Social World Making Truth Male Female Email Man, Beast, and Zombie Mandated Reporting of Suspected Child Abuse Mania Manic Depression and Creativity Mapping the Edges and the In-between Mapping the Future of Biology Marcus Aurelius Master Passions Matters of the Mind Me++ Meaning and Moral Order Meaning and Value in a Secular Age Meaning in Life Meaning in Life and Why It Matters Meaning, Basic Self-Knowledge, and Mind Meanings of Art Measuring Happiness Measuring Psychopathology Media Madness Medical Enhancement and Posthumanity Medical Nihilism Medicine and Philosophy in Classical Antiquity Medicine of the Person Medicine, Mental Health, Religion, Science and Well-Being Meditations on Self-Discipline and Failure Melancholy And the Care of the Soul Melancholy and the Otherness of God Memento Memory and Narrative Mental Actions Mental Causation Mental Causation and Ontology Mental Health Mental Health At The Crossroads Mental Health Policy in Britain Merit, Meaning, and Human Bondage Merleau-Ponty Merleau-Ponty and the Possibilities of Philosophy Metacognition and Theory of Mind Metacreation Metaethical Subjectivism Metaethics Metal and Flesh Metaphors of Memory Metapolitics Methods in Mind Michel Foucault Midlife Mill's Utilitarianism Mind Mind Mind Mind and Consciousness Mind and Cosmos Mind and Mechanism Mind Games Mind in a Physical World Mind in Everyday Life and Cognitive Science Mind in Life Mind the Body Mind Time Mind's Landscape Mind, Brain and the Elusive Soul Mind, Brain, and Free Will Mind, Reason and Imagination Minding Minds Mindreaders Mindreading Animals Minds and Persons Minds, Brains, and Law Minds, Ethics, and Conditionals Mindshaping Mindsight Mindworlds Mirror, Mirror Mixed Feelings Mockingbird Years Models of the Self Modern Social Imaginaries Modern Theories of Justice Modernity and Subjectivity Modernity and Technology Moody Minds Distempered Moral Brains Moral Dimensions Moral Failure Moral Imagination Moral Literacy Moral Machines Moral Particularism Moral Psychology Moral Psychology and Human Agency Moral Psychology, Volume 1 Moral Psychology, Volume 2 Moral Psychology, Volume 3 Moral Psychology: Volume IV Moral Repair Moral Responsibility and Alternative Possibilities Moral Tribes Moral Value and Human Diversity Morality and Self-Interest Morality in a Natural World Morality, Moral Luck and Responsibility Motherhood Motive and Rightness Moving Beyond Prozac, DSM, and the New Psychiatry Multiple Analogies in Science and Philosophy Multiple Identities & False Memories Music, Madness, and the Unworking of Language My Brain Made Me Do It My Double Unveiled My Way Narrative Narrative and Identity Narrative Medicine Narrative Psychiatry Narrative Theory and the Cognitive Sciences Natural Ethical Facts Natural Kinds and Conceptual Change Natural Minds Natural-Born Cybogs Naturalism and the First-Person Perspective Naturalism and the Human Condition Naturalism in the Philosophy of Health Naturalism in the Philosophy of Health Naturalized Bioethics Naturalizing the Mind Nature Nature and Narrative Near Death Experience Neither Bad nor Mad Neither Victim nor Survivor Neuro-Philosophy and the Healthy Mind Neuroethics Neuroethics Neuroexistentialism Neurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neurophilosophy at Work Neurophilosophy of Free Will Neuropolitics Neuropsychoanalysis in Practice Neuroscience and Philosophy New Essays on the Explanation of Action New Philosophy for a New Media New Versions of Victims New Waves in Philosophy of Action Nietzsche Nietzsche and Buddhist Philosophy Nietzsche on Ethics and Politics Nietzsche's Therapy Nietzsche, Culture and Education Nietzsche: The Man and His Philosophy Nihil Unbound Noir Anxiety Normative Ethics Normativity Norms of Nature Notebooks 1951-1959 Notes Toward a Performative Theory of Assembly Nothing So Absurd Oblivion On Anxiety On Apology On Being Authentic On Being Authentic On Belief On Betrayal On Bullshit On Delusion On Desire On Emotions On Hashish On Human Nature On Human Rights On Loving Our Enemies On Nature and Language On Personality On Reflection On Romantic Love On the Emotions On the Freud Watch On the Government of the Living On the Human Condition On the Internet On the Meaning of Life On the Philosophy of Law On the Pragmatics of Communication On the Punitive Society On Truth On Virtue Ethics On What Matters On What We Owe to Each Other One Hundred Days Onflow Only a Promise of Happiness Ontology of Consciousness Open Minded Open Your Eyes Organs without Bodies Other Minds Our Last Great Illusion Our Own Minds Our Posthuman Future Our Stories Out of Its Mind Out of Our Heads Oxford Guide to the Mind Oxford Handbook of Psychiatric Ethics Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics, Volume 7 Oxford Textbook of Philosophy of Psychiatry Panic Disorder Panpsychism Panpsychism in the West Partiality Passionate Engines Passionate Engines Pathologies of Belief Pathologies of Reason Patient Autonomy and the Ethics of Responsibility PC, M.D. Perceiving the World Perception & Cognition Perception and Basic Beliefs Perception, Hallucination, and Illusion Perceptual Experience Perfecting Virtue Perplexities of Consciousness Persistence Personal Autonomy Personal Autonomy in Society Personal Identity Personal Identity and Ethics Personal Identity and Fractured Selves Personhood and Health Care Persons Persons and Bodies Persons, Humanity, and the Definition of Death Persons, Souls and Death Perspectives on Imitation Perspectives on Pragmatism Pessimism Phenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal Knowledge Phenomenal Consciousness Phenomenal Intentionality Phenomenology and Existentialism Phenomenology and Philosophy of Mind Phenomenology of Illness Philosophers Philosophers on Music Philosophers without Gods Philosophical Counseling Philosophical Counselling and the Unconscious Philosophical Devices Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscience Philosophical History and the Problem of Consciousness Philosophical Issues in Pharmaceutics Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry II Philosophical Methodology Philosophical Midwifery Philosophical Myths of the Fall Philosophical Perspectives on Depiction Philosophical Perspectives on Technology and Psychiatry Philosophical Practice Philosophical Reflections on Disability Philosophizing About Sex Philosophizing the Everyday Philosophy and Happiness Philosophy and Living Philosophy and Psychiatry Philosophy and Psychotherapy Philosophy and Science Fiction Philosophy and the Emotions Philosophy and the Emotions Philosophy and the Interpretation of Pop Culture Philosophy and the Moving Image Philosophy and the Neurosciences Philosophy and This Actual World Philosophy As Fiction Philosophy Bites Philosophy Bites Back Philosophy for Counselling and Psychotherapy Philosophy for Life Philosophy in a New Century Philosophy in an Age of Science Philosophy in Children's Literature Philosophy in the Roman Empire Philosophy of Action Philosophy of Action Philosophy of Biology Philosophy of Biology Philosophy of Biology Philosophy of Biology Philosophy of Body Philosophy of Film and Motion Pictures Philosophy of Love Philosophy of Love, Sex, and Marriage Philosophy of Love, Sex, and Marriage: An Introduction Philosophy of Medicine Philosophy of Mind Philosophy of Mind and Cognition Philosophy of Personal Identity and Multiple Personality Philosophy of Psychology Philosophy of Public Health Philosophy of Science Philosophy of Science Philosophy of Technology: The Technological Condition Philosophy of the Social Sciences Philosophy on Tap Philosophy Practice Philosophy the Day after Tomorrow Philosophy Within Its Proper Bounds Philosophy's Role in Counseling and Psychotherapy Philosophy, Neuroscience and Consciousness Philosophy, Politics, Democracy Photography and Philosophy Physical Realization Physicalism and Its Discontents Physicalism and Mental Causation Physicalism, or Something Near Enough Physician-Assisted Dying Pillar of Salt Pin-up Grrrls Plant Minds Plato Plato Plato, Not Prozac! Platonic Ethics, Old and New Pleasure Pluralistic Casuistry Polarities of Experiences Political Emotions Popper, Objectivity and the Growth of Knowledge Porn Porn Studies Pornography, Sex, and Feminism Portrait of the Psychiatrist as a Young Man Positive Nihilism Postcolonial Disorders Postpsychiatry Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Power and the Self Power Split Practical Autonomy and Bioethics Practical Conflicts Practical Identity and Narrative Agency Practical Philosophy Practical Rules Practical Tortoise Raising Practically Profound Practicing Feminist Ethics in Psychology Pragmatic Bioethics Pragmatism Pragmatism, Old And New Praise and Blame Predicative Minds Preferences and Well-Being Prescriptions for the Mind Presocratics Primary and Secondary Qualities Primates and Philosophers Primitive Colors Privacy Privileged Access Problems in Mind Problems of Rationality Prozac As a Way of Life Prozac Backlash Prozac on the Couch Psyche and Ethos Psyche and Soma Psychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric Cultures Compared Psychiatric Diagnosis and Classification Psychiatric Ethics Psychiatric Hegemony Psychiatric Power Psychiatric Slavery Psychiatry and Philosophy of Science Psychiatry and Religion Psychiatry as a Human Science Psychiatry as Cognitive Neuroscience Psychiatry in Society Psychiatry in the New Millenium Psychiatry in the Scientific Image Psychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of Mind Psycho-Physical Dualism Today Psychoanalysis and Narrative Medicine Psychoanalysis and the Philosophy of Science Psychological Concepts and Biological Psychiatry Psychology and Philosophy Psychology and the Question of Agency Psychology's Interpretive Turn Psychology, Psychotherapy, Psychoanalysis, and the Politics of Human Relationships Psychotherapy and Confidentiality Psychotherapy As Praxis Public Philosophy Punishment Pure Immanence Purple Haze Pursuing Meaning Quality of Life and Human Difference Queer Philosophy Questions for Freud Questions for Freud Quine and Davidson on Language, Thought and Reality Race Race in Contemporary Medicine Radiant Cool Radical Alterity Radical Externalism Radical Hope Rational and Social Agency Rational Causation Rational Choice in an Uncertain World Rationality + Consciousness = Free Will Rationality and Freedom Rationality and the Reflective Mind Rationality in Action Rawls, Dewey, and Constructivism Re-creating Medicine Re-Emergence Re-Engineering Philosophy for Limited Beings Reading Autobiography Reading Bernard Williams Reading Sartre Readings in the Philosophy of Technology Real Materialism Real Natures and Familiar Objects Real Science Realism in Action Reason & Emancipation Reason in Action Reason in Philosophy Reason's Grief Reasonably Vicious Reasoning About Rational Agents Reasoning in Biological Discoveries Reasons from Within Reasons without Rationalism Reclaiming Cognition Reclaiming the Soul Reconceiving Schizophrenia Reconstructing Reason and Representation Reconstructing the Cognitive World Recreative Minds Rediscovering Emotion Rediscovering Empathy Reference and Existence Reference and the Rational Mind Reflections on Ethics and Responsibility Reflections On How We Live Reframing Disease Contextually Refusing Care Regulating Sex Reinventing the Soul Relativism and Human Rights Relativism and the Foundations of Philosophy Relativism and the Foundations of Philosophy Reliable Reasoning Religion without God Relying on Others Remembering Home Responsibility and Punishment Responsibility and Punishment Responsibility from the Margins Restraining Rage Rethinking Expertise Rethinking Introspection Rethinking Mental Health and Disorder Rethinking Rape Rethinking the DSM Rethinking the Sociology of Mental Health Rethinking the Western Understanding of the Self Return to Reason Revolt, She Said Richard Rorty Richard Rorty Richard Rorty Richard Rorty Richard Rorty Richard Rorty's New Pragmatism Rights Rights, Democracy, and Fulfillment in the Era of Identity Politics Rise And Fall of Soul And Self Ritalin Nation Robert Nozick Rousseau Rousseau and the Dilemmas of Modernity Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Derrida on Deconstruction Rules, Reason, and Self-Knowledge Saints, Scholars, and Schizophrenics: Mental Illness in Rural Ireland Sartre Sartre Sartre Sartre in Search of an Ethics Satisficing and Maximizing Saving God Scandalous Knowledge Schizophrenia Schizophrenia and the Fate of the Self Schizophrenia: A Scientific Delusion? 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Why Truth Matters Why We Dance Wider than the Sky William Blake on Self and Soul William James at the Boundaries William James on Ethics and Faith Willing, Wanting, Waiting Wisdom Won from Illness Wisdom, Intuition and Ethics Wise Therapy Witchcraze Within Reason Without Conscience Wittgenstein Wittgenstein and Approaches To Clarity Wittgenstein And Psychology Wittgenstein and Psychotherapy Wittgenstein on Freud and Frazer Wittgenstein Reads Freud Wittgenstein Reads Weininger Women, Body, Illness Women, Madness and Medicine Words and Images World, Affectivity, Trauma Written in the Flesh Yoga - Philosophy for Everyone Your Drug May Be Your Problem Zizek Zombies and Consciousness
In the cafés and in the libraries, in the intimate conversations
of young people inquiring into the ultimate nature of the world of which they
face the possibility of becoming a part, all the topics, the questions and the
points have implications of deep and general meaning. Only sometimes those ideas become explicit, though they are often
thought, and they form the solid bone of those human events we call
experience. Those ideas, when they take
on a name, are the ones that are called philosophy.
Underlying all the other issues is the matter of survival of the
mind in a world of dangers to one’s ability to face things as they are without
illusion nor preference of fantasies, lying to oneself, authoring a better
version, fictitious, dreaming, sleepwalking, attempting, without knowing the
obligation, if any, to be realistic, a double life simultaneous with that of
the body, and about which one feels just as urgently the will to survive.
This unnamed, underlying passion in the nature of humanity has led
millions of readers worldwide to the works of Jean-Paul Sartre, as it did to
Bertrand Russell and Ludwig Wittgenstein in the generations before, and to Kant
before them, and to Galileo, just as it did to Jesus the ultimate prophet and
Pythagoras the original scientist, over the centuries. The works of these men, all of them, are not
each self-substantial but as Dewey would say instrumental, subservient to a
higher purpose which unlike them is universal and eternal. Academism is never for its own sake.
Sartre makes the reading easy for those millions of readers by
playing a role. Then they can relate to
him as they do to characters in fiction -- Fagan, in Oliver Twist, or Polonius,
Hamlet’s tutor, or Socrates in Aristophanes’s The Clouds. After all, he cannot think for them. They must think about him, among whatever
else. Then perhaps he can be more effective by provoking their thought, than by
telling his. Thus we have a mode that
is not scientific discourse, not exposition of truth, but stream of
consciousness, the thoughts, speculations, of a fallible imagination. He offers quite a normal bargain, then, if
the truth would be told, that he can be read with the same void of credulity
with which adults normally face each other, allowing departures from the truth
for sake of exaggeration or threatening to snap under the strain.
One might presume Sartre is aware of Kierkegaard’s doctrine that
despair is a sin, disrespectful of the blessings of God, and disobedient to the
teachings of Jesus who pointed out those blessings and advised his followers to
be of good cheer. Then it is for
dramatic effect that Sartre sins deliberately, falling into skepticism and self-pity,
whereby a reader may detach himself certainly from the sin, and what becomes of
Sartre is not so certain -- we hear he lived a long life. Perhaps he was only saying what he said for
How else to explain it? -- the wrong-headedness that had become quite
traditional by the time of Sartre, after Kant claiming that being in itself can
not be known, though we all are that, and can know ourselves; after Russell
claiming that in mathematics we never know what we are talking about nor
whether what we are saying is true; he and Wittgenstein claiming to be
educated, and in philosophy, neither having read Aristotle’s Metaphysics.
Those millions of readers are not being well served by those
demonstrations of unworthiness, as the readers of former ages had been by
honest and sincere, though perhaps humbler, philosophers. We must ask again, is it really easier, to
read what appears to be the work of fools, or is the realization that comes
from that rather horrible? The 20th
Century seems to be like the 19th, a time of grotesque surrealism and
deliberate ugliness, like Breughel and Bosch, or dark satire, as if to take
Gargantua and Pantagruel seriously, with reverence and devotion.
What we are to make of Levy's book on Sartre depends on what we
can make of each of them, and what one made of the other. Each was right in some ways and wrong in
others. Sartre was right that politics
and morals, to have satisfactory solutions, must be recognized to be based on
metaphysics (of being, of which Aristotle wrote, and life, of which Jesus
taught profoundly), and that metaphysics, or philosophy as it is commonly
called, can not be based on empirical surveys in the anthropological manner --
taxonomy, critical impartiality, etc., but must supply the basis for such judgement,
and thus must come first and be constructed of pure logic as in mathematics --
or in other words, of universal, unavoidable experience of reality. Nor is philosophy merely a tradition. Any tradition and any taxonomy must comply
with the universal order of nature, which is prior to human affairs.
And this is where Sartre is wrong, in declaring that the being
whose existence precedes essence is man.
No, man is born with limits that precede him -- two legs, two arms,
thumbs, the power of speech etc. The
being whose existence precedes essence, if there is one, would be God. But we are incapable of answering that
question -- we usually avoid it, of take it as a metaphor for an obvious truth
(just look at the lilies of the field or the birds of the air). Sartre however claims to know that God does
For his rightness, being the foremost and largely unique exponent
of metaphysics in the latter 20th Century, Sartre deserves attention, high
regard, and serious reading. Levy is
right about that. Furthermore, Sartre
deserves recognition for his reconstruction of French intellectualism after the
war. But Levy is wrong to say (Chapter
3, p. 41) that what is important about Sartre is his doctrines -- atheism, no
human nature, etc. There, Levy is
consistent with the worldwide loss of the very concept of philosophy, to an
academic, anthropological approach.
© 2003 Ron
-- Ron Jump, The Institute of Formal Social Sciences, Systematic
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