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Anger and Forgiveness"Are You There Alone?"10 Good Questions about Life and DeathA Casebook of Ethical Challenges in NeuropsychologyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to Muslim EthicsA Cooperative SpeciesA Critique of the Moral Defense of VegetarianismA Delicate BalanceA Fragile LifeA Life for a LifeA Life-Centered Approach to BioethicsA Matter of SecurityA Mirror Is for ReflectionA Mirror Is for ReflectionA Natural History of Human MoralityA Philosophical DiseaseA Practical Guide to Clinical Ethics ConsultingA Question of TrustA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Short Stay in SwitzerlandA Tapestry of ValuesA Very Bad WizardA World Without ValuesAction and ResponsibilityAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionActs of ConscienceAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction NeuroethicsAdvance Directives in Mental HealthAfter HarmAftermathAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HealthAgainst MarriageAgainst Moral 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EthicsCloningClose toYouCoercion as CureCoercive Treatment in PsychiatryCognition of Value in Aristotle's EthicsCognitive Disability and Its Challenge to Moral Philosophy Comfortably NumbCommonsense RebellionCommunicative Action and Rational ChoiceCompetence, Condemnation, and CommitmentComprehending CareConducting Insanity EvaluationsConfidential RelationshipsConfidentiality and Mental HealthConflict of Interest in the ProfessionsConsuming KidsContemporary Debates In Applied EthicsContemporary Debates in Moral TheoryContemporary Debates in Social PhilosophyContentious IssuesContesting PsychiatryCrazy in AmericaCreating CapabilitiesCreatures Like Us?Crime and CulpabilityCrime, Punishment, and Mental IllnessCritical Perspectives in Public HealthCritical PsychiatryCrueltyCultural Assessment in Clinical PsychiatryCurrent Controversies in BioethicsCurrent Controversies in Values and ScienceCutting to the CoreCyborg CitizenDamaged IdentitiesDeaf Identities in the MakingDeath Is That Man Taking NamesDebating ProcreationDebating Same-Sex MarriageDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecoding the Ethics CodeDefining DifferenceDefining Right and Wrong in Brain ScienceDefining the Beginning and End of LifeDelusions of GenderDementiaDemocracy in What State?Demons of the Modern WorldDescriptions and PrescriptionsDesert and VirtueDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDestructive Trends in Mental HealthDeveloping the VirtuesDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital HemlockDigital SoulDignityDignityDisability BioethicsDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDiscrimination against the Mentally IllDisordered Personalities and CrimeDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDoes Feminism Discriminate against Men?Does Torture Work?Double Standards in Medical Research in Developing CountriesDown GirlDrugs and JusticeDworkin and His CriticsDying in the Twenty-First CenturyEarly WarningEconomics and Youth ViolenceEmbodied 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UnconsciousEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics at the CinemaEthics at the End of LifeEthics Case Book of the American Psychoanalytic AssociationEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics for EveryoneEthics for PsychologistsEthics for the New MillenniumEthics in CyberspaceEthics in Everyday PlacesEthics in Health CareEthics In Health Services ManagementEthics in Mental Health ResearchEthics in PracticeEthics in PsychiatryEthics in PsychologyEthics in Psychotherapy and CounselingEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEthics, Culture, and PsychiatryEthics, Sexual Orientation, and Choices about ChildrenEvaluating the Science and Ethics of Research on HumansEvilEvil GenesEvil in Modern ThoughtEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolutionary Ethics and Contemporary BiologyEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolved MoralityExperiments in EthicsExploding the Gene MythExploiting ChildhoodFacing Human SufferingFact and ValueFacts and ValuesFaking ItFalse-Memory Creation in Children and AdultsFat ShameFatal FreedomFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist TheoryFinal ExamFirst Do No HarmFirst, Do No HarmFlashpointFlesh WoundsForced to CareForgivenessForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and ReconciliationForgiveness and RetributionForgiveness is Really StrangeFoucault and the Government of DisabilityFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Forensic Mental Health AssessmentFree WillFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will and Reactive AttitudesFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree?Freedom and ValueFreedom vs. InterventionFriendshipFrom Darwin to HitlerFrom Disgust to HumanityFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Silence to VoiceFrom Valuing to ValueFrontiers of JusticeGender in the MirrorGenetic PoliticsGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetics of Original SinGenetics of Original SinGenocide's AftermathGetting 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DeliberationPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perfecting VirtuePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonalities on the PlatePersonhood and Health CarePersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPerspectives On Health And Human RightsPharmaceutical FreedomPharmacracyPharmageddonPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhysician-Assisted DyingPicturing DisabilityPilgrim at Tinker CreekPlaying God?Playing God?Political EmotionsPornlandPowerful MedicinesPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical EthicsPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical RulesPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic NeuroethicsPraise and BlamePreferences and Well-BeingPrimates and PhilosophersPro-Life, Pro-ChoiceProcreation and ParenthoodProfits Before People?Progress in BioethicsProperty in the BodyProzac As a Way of LifeProzac on the CouchPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse 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How Much?Why Some Things Should Not Be for SaleWisdom, Intuition and EthicsWithout ConscienceWomen and Borderline Personality DisorderWomen and MadnessWondergenesWould You Kill the Fat Man?Wrestling with Behavioral GeneticsWriting About PatientsYou Must Be DreamingYour Genetic DestinyYour Inner FishYouth Offending and Youth Justice Yuck!
In Babies by Design, Ronald M. Green has produced a helpful, interesting, and above all clear introduction to the ethical issues surrounding the use of new and prospective genetic technologies. His focus is primarily, though despite his title not exclusively, on the application that such technologies have to the avoidance of genetic disorder in future children, as well as to the more controversial issue of the production of children with enhanced capabilities. The book is ideal for students new to the field, and for the intelligent general reader. Those already familiar with the ethical problems it covers will find nothing especially new in it, though they may derive considerable benefit from Green's careful accounts of the science of human genetic engineering. Certainly, the work is commendably free of jargon, assumes no prior knowledge of philosophy in general or bioethics in particular, and is written in a remarkably lucid and engaging style.
This lucidity, indeed, is one of the book's prime virtues. For example, I have never seen as clear, compact, yet accurate a summary of John Rawls's theory of justice as Green offers--to good argumentative effect--in his sixth chapter ("Will we create a 'Genobility'?"). And for sure, Green's tone throughout is not that of the dry academic work, but is light and accessible. The opening lines of Chapter 2 are fairly representative, though I concede that they might not be to every reader's taste:
Mario Capecchi has invented a technology that could change our world. Seated in his fifth-floor office in the Eccles Institute of Human Genetics on the University of Utah campus, with the Great Salt Lake and Oquirrh mountain range shimmering in the window behind him, he reviews the ways that genome research is expanding our ability to understand and alter human genetic inheritance. Capecchi's voice rises with emotion when he considers whether we should go beyond genetic selection to actively modify the human genome.
Green's overall position on the issues he addresses is, at least officially, one of cautious bio-liberalism. That is, he thinks on balance that we ought to embrace the use of genetic science both to prevent disorder in, and to enhance, our offspring. At the same time, he is aware that possible risks--to individuals, families, and society at large--lurk in the shadows. He does not shy away from these risks, though he is optimistic that they can universally be overcome. He is at his most convincing (and enlightening) here when detailing, in Chapter 4, the scientific means by which the physical risks of human genetic modification might be managed.
The idea, then, is that the book provides a balanced account of its topic, sensitive to the worries of the bio-conservative who, in contemplating our proposed genetic future, sees only potential disaster in the shape of eugenic programs, damaged family relations, harmed children, and mass social injustice. It envisions itself, then, as no unequivocally enthusiastic bio-liberal polemic, of the sort produced by, for instance, John Harris or Julian Savulescu. For the most part, it achieves its aim, though there are occasions on which the concessions made to the bio-conservative can present the appearance of a mere rhetorical strategy. Green frequently comments, after outlining a set of reservations about some aspect of genetic intervention, "These are serious concerns," before going on immediately to dismiss them (for example, p. 8: "In the chapters ahead we will see that there are serious reasons for concern"; p. 226: "The likelihood of reinforcing prejudice and unjust inequality is a serious concern. Nevertheless ...") If they are so readily dealt with, one wonders in what sense the concerns can genuinely be said to be serious. It cannot be that Green thinks that they are tremendously compelling; it is evident that he does not. Is it simply that those who hold them take them seriously, though they ought not to? This would hardly make them serious in themselves. Green's "These are serious concerns," then, can at times seem to do the same rhetorical work as Mark Anthony's "Brutus is an honourable man".
Perhaps, however, I am being unfair. It is far from obvious whether this is the case, but Green may simply be conceding that the dangers to which the bio-conservative points are genuine possibilities, while insisting that they can nonetheless be avoided. It is possible, so long as we are careful--and, as suggested in the final chapter, so long as we avoid regulatory arrangements that can be railroaded by narrow interest groups--for our genetic future to be rosy. When deployed with moral sensitivity, genetic technologies can be a powerful tool in the support of individuals and the family, and can boost rather than undermine the production of a just society.
Not every aspect of Green's approach in the book works as well as it might: while it is on paper a good idea to use works of science-fiction to shed light on bioethical issues, the execution here--using at least one science-fiction story in all chapters but the final one--meets with varying levels of success. Sometimes it is less than clear why it is being done, other than to make good the promise that it will be done. Green's straightforward arguments are almost always more enlightening than any number of examples from fiction, and can easily stand on their own.
Despite the slight reservations I have expressed, I think that Babies by Design is a very useful and worthy text. Students and general readers will find it enormously accessible and will profit greatly from reading it. To ensure that they are gaining a truly balanced picture, however, they would be well-advised to read it in combination with some of the bio-conservative works that Green cites.
© 2009 Peter Herissone-Kelly
Peter Herissone-Kelly, Lecturer in Philosophy, University of Central Lancashire and Visiting Fellow, University of Bolton