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Anger and Forgiveness"Are You There Alone?"10 Good Questions about Life and DeathA Casebook of Ethical Challenges in NeuropsychologyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to Muslim EthicsA Cooperative SpeciesA Critique of the Moral Defense of VegetarianismA Delicate BalanceA Fragile LifeA Life for a LifeA Life-Centered Approach to BioethicsA Matter of SecurityA Mirror Is for ReflectionA Mirror Is for ReflectionA Natural History of Human MoralityA Philosophical DiseaseA Practical Guide to Clinical Ethics ConsultingA Question of TrustA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Short Stay in SwitzerlandA Tapestry of ValuesA Very Bad WizardA World Without ValuesAction and ResponsibilityAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionActs of ConscienceAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction NeuroethicsAdvance Directives in Mental HealthAfter HarmAftermathAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HealthAgainst MarriageAgainst Moral 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Values and ScienceCutting to the CoreCyborg CitizenDamaged IdentitiesDeaf Identities in the MakingDeath Is That Man Taking NamesDebating ProcreationDebating Same-Sex MarriageDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecoding the Ethics CodeDefining DifferenceDefining Right and Wrong in Brain ScienceDefining the Beginning and End of LifeDelusions of GenderDementiaDemocracy in What State?Demons of the Modern WorldDescriptions and PrescriptionsDesert and VirtueDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDestructive Trends in Mental HealthDeveloping the VirtuesDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital HemlockDigital SoulDignityDignityDisability BioethicsDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDiscrimination against the Mentally IllDisordered Personalities and CrimeDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDoes Feminism Discriminate against Men?Does Torture Work?Doing HarmDouble Standards in Medical Research in Developing CountriesDown GirlDrugs and JusticeDuty and the BeastDworkin and His CriticsDying in the Twenty-First CenturyEarly WarningEconomics and Youth ViolenceEmbodied RhetoricsEmerging Conceptual, Ethical and Policy Issues in BionanotechnologyEmotional ReasonEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions in the Moral LifeEmpathyEmpathy and Moral DevelopmentEmpathy and MoralityEmpirical Ethics in PsychiatryEncountering NatureEncountering the Sacred in PsychotherapyEngendering International HealthEnhancing EvolutionEnhancing Human CapacitiesEnoughEros and the GoodErotic InnocenceErotic MoralityEssays on Derek Parfit's On What MattersEssays on Free Will and Moral ResponsibilityEthical Choices in Contemporary MedicineEthical Conflicts in PsychologyEthical Dilemmas in PediatricsEthical Issues in Behavioral ResearchEthical Issues in Dementia CareEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthical Issues in the New GeneticsEthical LifeEthical Reasoning for Mental Health ProfessionalsEthical TheoryEthical WillsEthically Challenged ProfessionsEthicsEthicsEthicsEthics and AnimalsEthics and ScienceEthics and the A PrioriEthics and the Discovery of the UnconsciousEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics at the CinemaEthics at the End of LifeEthics Case Book of the American Psychoanalytic AssociationEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics for EveryoneEthics for PsychologistsEthics for the New MillenniumEthics in CyberspaceEthics in Everyday PlacesEthics in Health CareEthics In Health Services ManagementEthics in Mental Health ResearchEthics in PracticeEthics in PsychiatryEthics in PsychologyEthics in Psychotherapy and CounselingEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEthics, Culture, and PsychiatryEthics, Sexual Orientation, and Choices about ChildrenEvaluating the Science and Ethics of Research on HumansEvilEvil GenesEvil in Modern ThoughtEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolutionary Ethics and Contemporary BiologyEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolved MoralityExperiments in EthicsExploding the Gene MythExploiting ChildhoodFacing Human SufferingFact and ValueFacts and ValuesFaking ItFalse-Memory Creation in Children and AdultsFat ShameFatal FreedomFellow CreaturesFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist TheoryFinal ExamFirst Do No HarmFirst, Do No HarmFlashpointFlesh WoundsForced to CareForgivenessForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and ReconciliationForgiveness and RetributionForgiveness is Really StrangeFoucault and the Government of DisabilityFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Forensic Mental Health AssessmentFree WillFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will and Reactive AttitudesFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree?Freedom and ValueFreedom vs. InterventionFriendshipFrom Darwin to HitlerFrom Disgust to HumanityFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Silence to VoiceFrom Valuing to ValueFrontiers of 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ShadowsOverdosed AmericaOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Studies in Normative EthicsOxford Studies in Normative Ethics, Volume 7Oxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPassionate DeliberationPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perfecting VirtuePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonalities on the PlatePersonhood and Health CarePersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPerspectives On Health And Human RightsPharmaceutical FreedomPharmacracyPharmageddonPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhysician-Assisted DyingPicturing DisabilityPilgrim at Tinker CreekPlaying God?Playing God?Political EmotionsPornlandPowerful MedicinesPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical EthicsPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical RulesPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic NeuroethicsPraise and BlamePreferences and Well-BeingPrimates and PhilosophersPro-Life, Pro-ChoiceProcreation and ParenthoodProfits Before People?Progress in BioethicsProperty in the BodyProzac As a Way of LifeProzac on the CouchPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric EthicsPsychiatry and EmpirePsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychology and Consumer CulturePsychology and LawPsychotropic Drug Prescriber's Survival GuidePublic Health LawPublic Health Law and EthicsPublic PhilosophyPunishing the Mentally IllPunishmentPursuits of WisdomPutting Morality Back Into PoliticsPutting on VirtueQuality of Life and Human DifferenceRaceRadical HopeRadical VirtuesRape Is RapeRe-creating MedicineRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReckoning With HomelessnessReconceiving Medical EthicsRecovery from SchizophreniaRedefining RapeRedesigning HumansReducing the Stigma of Mental IllnessReflections on Ethics and ResponsibilityReflections On How We 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Materials on International Human RightsThe Moral Psychology of AngerThe Age of CulpabilityThe Age of CulpabilityThe Aims of Higher EducationThe Almost MoonThe Altruistic BrainThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Forensic PsychiatryThe Animal ManifestoThe Animals' AgendaThe Art of LivingThe Autonomy of MoralityThe Beloved SelfThe Best Things in LifeThe Big FixThe Bioethics ReaderThe Biology and Psychology of Moral AgencyThe Blackwell Guide to Medical EthicsThe Body SilentThe BondThe Book of LifeThe Burden of SympathyThe Cambridge Companion to Virtue EthicsThe Cambridge Companion to Virtue EthicsThe Cambridge Textbook of BioethicsThe Case against Assisted SuicideThe Case Against PerfectionThe Case Against PunishmentThe Case for PerfectionThe Case of Terri SchiavoThe Challenge of Human RightsThe Character GapThe Code for Global EthicsThe Colonization Of Psychic SpaceThe Commercialization of Intimate LifeThe Common ThreadThe Connected SelfThe Constitution of AgencyThe Cow with 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Moral Machines: Teaching Robots Right from Wrong is the first book-length discussion of issues arising in the nascent field of Machine Ethics, offered by two of its more veteran thinkers. The authors do an admirable job at using language accessible to an interdisciplinary audience, which also makes the book open to a more general public readership. It will be of interest to anyone concerned with the ethical, social, and engineering issues that accompany the quest to develop machines that can act autonomously out in the world.
As a response to the expanding (and seemingly limitless) scope of artificial intelligence and robotics research, a surge of recent work has focused on issues related to the development of artificial moral agents (AMAs) (or moral machines or ethical robots). These robots will (or in certain cases already do) have the capacity to perform ethically relevant actions out in the world, in varying ways and with varying degrees of autonomy. As the capacities of such robots increase, so too should our demand that such machines act ethically. The cutting-edge discipline of Machine Ethics--made up of engineers, artificial intelligence researchers, and philosophers--is important because it investigates whether or not the development of AMAs is possible (and desirable), and helps us to prepare just in case it is.
The main themes of Moral Machines are twofold: An examination of the motivations we have for creating AMAs and how we should go about developing machines that behave ethically. Each chapter of the book focuses on certain specific issues that need to be attended to if the project of Machine Ethics is to be successful. Some of the more noteworthy questions posed by Wallach and Allen include: 'Is machine morality necessary?', 'Can robots be moral?', 'Does humanity want machines making moral decisions?', 'What are the roles of engineers and philosophers in the design of AMAs?', 'What methods and moral frameworks are best suited for the design of AMAs?', and 'How can machine morality inform human morality?'. Through their attempt to answer these questions, the authors offer a detailed and thorough survey of the relevant research being done on machine morality, and offer preliminary (and often quite insightful) answers to these and other questions (although they humbly admit that much more work needs to be done in the future).
The authors also make some more substantial claims about how ethics could be implemented into machines. For example, after discussing the benefits and shortcomings of both top-down (rule-based) and bottom-up (evolution- or learning-based) approaches to the design of moral robots, the authors spend some time arguing for a hybrid approach (Ch. 8 and Ch. 11). One example suggested by the authors is an approach that appeals to a virtue ethical framework, since virtue ethics focuses on virtuous character traits which are acquired through training and habit formation (and hence may accommodate both top-down and bottom-up computational approaches). The authors argue that a hybrid approach holds much promise for overcoming the problems associated with pure top-down and bottom-up approaches to implementing ethics into machines. This proposal has some initial appeal and plausibility, and warrants the attention of further research.
Despite the value of the book as a whole, a few critical notes are worth mentioning. For one thing, although the authors touch upon issues surrounding the nature of moral agency, they do so only somewhat superficially, leaving many of the more complex and important issues unattended (and unresolved). For example, there is a rich debate over whether or not consciousness is a necessary condition for being a moral agent, and, if so, whether robots could be sufficiently conscious so as to possess moral agency (akin to humans, perhaps). Although the authors do mention the issue of machine consciousness (and moral agency in general), they do so only in passing (Ch. 4).
Furthermore, although the authors discuss the relationship between ethics and engineering, and the different (and often conflicting) roles of ethicists and engineers, the authors seem to champion the task of the engineer. In other words, although the book is devoted to the topic of machine morality, the authors focus primarily on the design, implementation, and engineering aspects of creating AMAs, with the consequence of leaving other (ethical) issues by the wayside. For example, in their discussion of which sort of ethic we should implement into machines, the authors focus on which frameworks work best in terms of their computability or implementability. There is no doubt that this issue is important. Yet certain ethical questions may demand attention, prior to the implementation stage. For example, whether the moral codes we are trying to implement into our machines allow for the development of those types of machines is never asked. Moreover, from an engineering perspective, the moral frameworks appealed to for designing AMAs are assessed based solely on whether they are conducive to implementability. Yet, ethicists may be reluctant to accept that all (or most) moral frameworks start on an even playing field, the problem simply being a matter of which frameworks are most conducive to implementation. Some discussion of the longstanding debates in Ethics between competing moral frameworks may be necessary here. Although the authors argue for a hybrid approach to designing AMAs, perhaps one that adopts a virtue-based moral framework, they do not ask whether we would want our machines to be virtuous, in the sense that virtue ethics is the best moral framework on offer (as compared to duty-based or consequentialist ethics, for example).
Despite these unattended issues, Moral Machines represents a valuable addition to, and extension of, the current literature on machine morality. As the development of autonomous artificial moral agents becomes closer to being realized, I suspect that this book will only gain in importance.
© 2009 Ryan Tonkens
Ryan Tonkens, Department of Philosophy, York University, Toronto, Canada