email page print pageAll Topic Reviews
A New Understanding of Mental Disorders A Theory of Feelings Addictions Memory and the Self"Intimate" Violence against Women1001 Solution-Focused Questions101 Healing Stories101 Things I Wish I'd Known When I Started Using Hypnosis50 Great Myths of Popular Psychology50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a God8 Keys to Body Brain BalanceA Brief History of Modern PsychologyA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Conceptual History of Psychology: Exploring the Tangled Web A Cooperative SpeciesA Guide to Teaching Introductory PsychologyA History of Modern Experimental PsychologyA History of Psychology in AutobiographyA History of Social PsychologyA History of the BrainA History of the MindA Hole in the HeadA Matter of SecurityA Mind of Its OwnA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Place for ConsciousnessA Short Introduction to Promoting Resilience in ChildrenA Social History of PsychologyA Stroll With William JamesA System Architecture Approach to the BrainA Theory of FreedomA Very Bad WizardAbductedAbout FacesAccounts of InnocenceAction, Emotion and WillAdapting MindsAddiction and Self-ControlADHD & MeADHD in AdultsAdieu to GodAdolescence and Body ImageAdult Bipolar DisordersAdvances in Culture and PsychologyAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAffect Regulation, Mentalization, and the Development of SelfAffective MappingAgainst EmpathyAgainst HappinessAges and StagesAll Joy and No FunAll Out!All We Have to FearAlterations of ConsciousnessAmerican Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical NeurosciencesAn Argument for MindAncient Bodies, Modern LivesAnd BreatheAnimal MadnessAnimal Tool BehaviorAnimals in TranslationAnomalous CognitionAping MankindArtificial ConsciousnessAspects of PsychologismAsperger Syndrome and Your ChildAsperger Syndrome, Adolescence, and IdentityAssessment and Treatment of Childhood Problems, Second EditionAssisted Suicide and the Right to DieAttachedAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutism and the Myth of the Person AloneAutopsy of a Suicidal MindBecoming an Effective PsychotherapistBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing No OneBelievingBetween Two WorldsBeyond AppearanceBeyond BlueBeyond BullyingBeyond MadnessBeyond MelancholyBeyond the BrainBeyond the DSM StoryBig DreamsBiofeedback for the BrainBipolar ChildrenBipolar DisorderBipolar KidsBlackwell Handbook of Childhood Cognitive DevelopmentBlind SpotsBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlubberlandBlushBodiesBody ConsciousnessBody Image, Eating Disorders, and Obesity in YouthBody SenseBody WorkBorderline Personality DisorderBorderline Personality Disorder and the Conversational ModelBorn DigitalBorn to Be GoodBorn Together - Reared ApartBounceBoundaries in Human RelationshipsBounded RationalityBozo SapiensBrain and CultureBrain and the GazeBrain Arousal and Information TheoryBrain BugsBrain Change TherapyBrain Circuitry and Signaling in PsychiatryBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-Based Therapy with AdultsBrain-WiseBrainstormBrainstormingBraintrustBrainwashingBrandedBreaking Murphy's LawBright-SidedBuddha's BrainBullying and TeasingBuyologyCan't You Hear Them?CaptureCare of the PsycheCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCerebrum 2007Cerebrum 2010Cerebrum 2015Cerebrum Anthology 2013Changing the SubjectCharacter Strengths and VirtuesCheating LessonsChild and Adolescent Psychological DisordersChildren’s Dreaming and the Development of Consciousness Chomsky NotebookClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyClinical Psychology in Practice ClosureCognition and PerceptionCognition and the BrainCognitive BiologyCognitive DissonanceCognitive FictionsCognitive Mechanisms of Belief ChangeCognitive PragmaticsCognitive ScienceCognitive ScienceCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Therapy of Anxiety DisordersCognitive Unconscious and Human RationalityCold-Blooded KindnessComing of Age in Second LifeCommunication Issues In Autism And Asperger SyndromeCompassion and Healing in Medicine and SocietyComplementary and Alternative Therapies ResearchComprehending ColumbineConfessions of a SociopathConquering Shame and CodependencyConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the Social BrainConsciousness EmergingConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Self-Consciousness, and the Science of Being HumanConstructing PainConsumer NeuroscienceContemporary Debates in Cognitive ScienceConversations on ConsciousnessConviction of the InnocentCooperation and Its EvolutionCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCredit and BlameCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychologyCritical Thinking About PsychologyCross-Cultural PsychologyCrowdsourcingCrueltyCultural Assessment in Clinical PsychiatryCuriousDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous and Severe Personality DisorderDaniel DennettDaughters of MadnessDeafness In MindDeath and ConsciousnessDeath of a ParentDecomposing the WillDeep Brain StimulationDeep ChinaDefining DifferenceDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions of GenderDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDeparting from DevianceDescartes' BabyDescartes's Changing MindDescribing Inner Experience?Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Destructive EmotionsDevelopment of Geocentric Spatial Language and CognitionDevelopment of PsychopathologyDialogues on DifferenceDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Digital HemlockDirty MindsDisgust and Its DisordersDisorders of VolitionDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Doing without ConceptsDrunk Tank PinkEducating People to Be Emotionally IntelligentEffective IntentionsEffective Writing in PsychologyEffortless AttentionEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbracing MindEmbracing UncertaintyEMDR Therapy and Somatic PsychologyEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotionally InvolvedEmotionsEmotionsEmotions and LifeEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions RevealedEmotions, Aggression, and Morality in ChildrenEmotions, Stress, and HealthEmpathyEnjoymentErotic MoralityEscape Your Own PrisonEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthically Challenged ProfessionsEveryday Mind ReadingEvidence for PsiEvidence-Based Mental Health PracticeEvil MenEvolution and Human BehaviorEvolution and LearningEvolution, Games, and GodEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolutionary Psychology as Maladapted PsychologyExacting BeautyExperiences of DepressionExperimenterExplaining the BrainExplaining the BrainExplorations in Neuroscience, Psychology and ReligionExploring TranssexualismExpression and the InnerExtending Self-Esteem ResearchExtraordinary BeliefsFact and Value in EmotionFaking ItFatigue as a Window to the BrainFavorite Activities for the Teaching of PsychologyFeeling GoodFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFinding Meaning, Facing FearsFitting In Is OverratedFive Constraints on Predicting BehaviorFlourishingFlow: The Psychology of Optimal ExperienceFolk Psychological NarrativesFooling HoudiniForever YoungFormulation in Psychology and PsychotherapyFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Psychological ThoughtFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom EvolvesFrom Axons to IdentityFrom Madness to Mental HealthFrom Neurons to Self-ConsciousnessFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrom Symptom to SynapseFrontiers of ConsciousnessGay, Straight, and the Reason WhyGenerosityGenes, Environment, and PsychopathologyGenetic Nature/CultureGeniusGetting Under the SkinGlued to GamesGoing SaneGot Parts?Group GeniusGrowing Up GirlGuilt, Shame, and AnxietyGut ReactionsHallucinationHandbook New Sexuality StudiesHandbook of Closeness and IntimacyHandbook of Critical PsychologyHandbook of Emotion RegulationHandbook of EmotionsHandbook of Personality DisordersHandbook of PsychopathyHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Spatial CognitionHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness at WorkHappiness Is.Happy at LastHard to GetHardwired BehaviorHatredHealing the SplitHidden ResourcesHope and DespairHot ThoughtHot ThoughtHouse and PsychologyHow Animals Affect UsHow Animals GrieveHow Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Doctors ThinkHow Enlightenment Changes Your BrainHow Families Still MatterHow History Made the MindHow Infants Know MindsHow Many Friends Does One Person Need?How People ChangeHow Professors ThinkHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Change Someone You LoveHow We ReasonHow We RememberHughes' Outline of Modern PsychiatryHumanHuman BondingHuman Reasoning and Cognitive ScienceHume’s Moral Philosophy and Contemporary PsychologyHypnotismHysteriaiBrainIdentifying Hyperactive ChildrenIdentifying the MindiDisorderImagination and the Meaningful BrainImitation and the Social MindImpulse Control DisordersImpulsivityIn an Unspoken VoiceIn Defense of SentimentalityIn DoubtIn Search of HappinessIn the Wake of 9/11Individual and Collective Memory ConsolidationInner Experience and NeuroscienceInner PresenceInside the American CoupleIntegrated Behavioral Health CareIntegrating Evolution and DevelopmentIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntellectual DisabilityIntelligenceIntelligence, Destiny, and EducationIntentions and IntentionalityInterdependent MindsInterpreting MindsInto the Minds of MadmenIntoxicating MindsIntrospection VindicatedIntuitionInventing PersonalityInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIs There Anything Good About Men?Issues for Families, Schools and CommunitiesJane Sexes It UpJoint AttentionJoint AttentionJudgment and Decision MakingJust a DogJust BabiesJuvenile-Onset SchizophreniaKarl JaspersKey Thinkers in PsychologyKidding OurselvesKids of CharacterKilling MonstersLack of CharacterLanguage OriginsLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw, Mind and BrainLess Than HumanLet Kids Be KidsLet's Talk About DeathLiving NarrativeLiving with Mild Cognitive ImpairmentLonelinessLooking for SpinozaLossLOT 2Love at Goon ParkMachine ConsciousnessMacrocognitionMade for Each OtherMadnessMadness and Modernism: Insanity in the light of modern art, literature, and thought Making a Good Brain GreatMaking Habits, Breaking HabitsMaking Minds and MadnessMaking Up the MindMale SexualityMan and WomanMan's Search for MeaningMan, Beast, and ZombieManic MindsManlinessMapping the MindMarking the MindMarvelous Learning AnimalMasculinity Studies and Feminist TheoryMeaningMeaning, Mortality, and ChoiceMedical MusesMeditating SelflesslyMeetings with a Remarkable ManMemoryMemory and DreamsMemory and EmotionMemory And UnderstandingMental BiologyMental IllnessMental Time TravelMetacognitionMetacognition and Theory of MindMethods in MindMindMindMind and BrainMind and ConsciousnessMind Games:Mind in LifeMind TimeMind to MindMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMindful AngerMindfulnessMindfulnessMindfulness and AcceptanceMindfulness-Based Treatment Approaches: Clinician's Guide to Evidence Base and ApplicationsMinding AnimalsMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds, Brains, and LawMindsightMindworldsMirrors in the BrainMistakes Were Made (But Not by Me)Models of MadnessMoodMoral Development and RealityMoral MindsMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Mothers and OthersMotivation and Cognitive ControlMotivational Interviewing: Preparing People For ChangeMovies and the MindMulticulturalism and the Therapeutic ProcessMultiplicityMuses, Madmen, and ProphetsMy Family AlbumMyths about SuicideNarrative IdentitiesNarrative PsychiatryNarratives in PsychiatryNaturalizing Intention in ActionNature and NarrativeNature Via NurtureNeither Bad nor MadNerveNeurobiology and the Development of Human MoralityNeurochemistry of ConsciousnessNeurodiversityNeuroethicsNeuroLogicNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neuroscience and PhilosophyNo Child Left DifferentNo Two AlikeNot By Genes AloneNot Much Just Chillin'Not So Abnormal PsychologyNurturing the Older Brain and MindOn AnxietyOn Being an Introvert or Highly Sensitive PersonOn Being HumanOn Being MovedOn Deep History and the BrainOn DesireOn KillingOn Nature and LanguageOn PaedophiliaOn PersonalityOn the Frontier of AdulthoodOn the Origins of Cognitive ScienceOn The Stigma Of Mental IllnessOnflowOpen MindsOpening Skinner's BoxOrigin of MindOrigins of PsychopathologyOther MindsOut of Our HeadsOut of the WoodsOvercoming Depersonalization DisorderPanpsychism and the Religious AttitudePanpsychism in the WestParenting and the Child's WorldPassionate EnginesPathologies of the WestPatient-Based Approaches to Cognitive NeurosciencePediatric PsychopharmacologyPeople Types and Tiger StripesPerception & CognitionPerception beyond InferencePerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPersonal Development and Clinical PsychologyPerspectives on ImitationPhantoms in the BrainPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhrenologyPhysical RealizationPhysics in MindPieces of LightPlaying with FirePositive PsychologyPositive PsychologyPostcards from the Brain MuseumPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPoverty and Brain Development During ChildhoodPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical Management of Personality DisorderPractical Management of Personality DisorderPredicative MindsPredictably IrrationalPreference, Belief, and SimilarityPrenatal Testosterone in MindPrivileged AccessProcess-Based CBTProcrastinationProust Was a NeuroscientistPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsychological AgencyPsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychological Dimensions of the SelfPsychologists Defying the CrowdPsychologyPsychologyPsychology and Consumer CulturePsychology and LawPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology for ScreenwritersPsychology of Women: A Handbook of Issues and TheoriesPsychology's GhostsPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology's TerritoriesPsychopathologyPsychopathyPsychosis and EmotionPsychotherapy, American Culture, and Social PolicyPutnam CampPutting a Name to ItQuantum Memory PowerQuietRadical DistortionRadical Embodied Cognitive ScienceRadical ExternalismRadical GraceRapeRe-Visioning PsychiatryReal MaterialismReality CheckReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecovery in Mental IllnessRecreative MindsRedirectReducing Adolescent RiskRegulating EmotionsRelational BeingRelational Mental HealthRelational Suicide AssessmentReliability in Cognitive NeuroscienceRemembering HomeRemembering Our ChildhoodResearch Advances in Genetics and GenomicsResearching Children's ExperienceResilience in ChildrenRestoring ResilienceRethinking ADHDRethinking Learning DisabilitiesRethinking Middle YearsRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfRevolution in PsychologyRoadmap to ResilienceRomance and Sex in Adolescence and Emerging AdulthoodSchadenfreudeSchizophrenia RevealedSchizophrenia, Culture, and SubjectivityScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologyScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologySecond NatureSecond NatureSecond That EmotionSecond-order Change in PsychotherapySecrets of the MindSee What I'm SayingSee What I'm SayingSeeing and VisualizingSeeing RedSelf and SocietySelf Comes to MindSelf Control in Society, Mind, and BrainSelf-Awareness Deficits in Psychiatric PatientsSelf-CompassionSelf-Consciousness and 'Split' BrainsSelf-RegulationSelf-Representational Approaches to ConsciousnessSelfless InsightSelvesSerial KillersSex at DawnSex on the BrainSex, Time and PowerSexual Coercion in Primates and HumansSexual DisordersSexual FluiditySexual ReckoningsSexualized BrainsShame and GuiltShatteredSimulating MindsSisyphus's BoulderSleepyheadSNAPSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial Psychology and DiscourseSome We Love, Some We Hate, Some We EatSoul DustSparkSpiral of EntrapmentSplendors and Miseries of the BrainSports Hypnosis in PracticeStanding at Water's EdgeStich and His CriticsStillpowerStop OverreactingStructure and Agency in Everyday LifeStructures of AgencyStuffStumbling on HappinessSubjectivity and SelfhoodSubstance Abuse and EmotionSuicidalSupersizing the MindSweet DreamsSynaptic SelfTales from Both Sides of the BrainTalking Oneself SoberTalking to BabiesTaming the Troublesome ChildTargeting AutismTeaching Problems and the Problems of TeachingTeleological RealismTen Years of Viewing from WithinTestosterone RexThat's DisgustingThe 5 Elements of Effective ThinkingThe Accidental MindThe Age of EmpathyThe Altruism EquationThe Altruistic BrainThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Clinical PsychiatryThe Anatomy of BiasThe Anxious BrainThe Archaeology of MindThe Art and Science of MindfulnessThe Art InstinctThe Art of HypnosisThe Asymmetrical BrainThe Bifurcation of the SelfThe Big Book of ConceptsThe Big DisconnectThe Birth of IntersubjectivityThe Birth of the MindThe Blackwell Handbook of Organizational Learning and Knowledge ManagementThe Blank SlateThe Body Has a Mind of Its OwnThe Bounds of CognitionThe Boy Who Was Raised as a DogThe BrainThe BrainThe Brain and the Meaning of LifeThe Brain SupremacyThe Brain That Changes ItselfThe Brain's Way of HealingThe Brain: Big Bangs, Behaviors, and BeliefsThe Cambridge Handbook of Cognitive ScienceThe Cambridge Handbook of Situated CognitionThe Character of ConsciousnessThe Chemistry Between UsThe Choice EffectThe Clinical Science of Suicide PreventionThe Cognitive Approach to Conscious MachinesThe Cognitive Behavioral Workbook for Anxiety: A Step-By-Step ProgramThe Cognitive NeurosciencesThe Cognitive-Emotional BrainThe College Fear FactorThe Commercialization of Intimate LifeThe Compass of PleasureThe Compassionate ConnectionThe Concepts of ConsciousnessThe Conscious BrainThe Conscious SelfThe Consuming InstinctThe Creating BrainThe Creative BrainThe Crucible of ConsciousnessThe Crucible of ExperienceThe Cure WithinThe Dao of NeuroscienceThe Developing MindThe Developing MindThe Development of PsychopathologyThe Disappearance of the Social in American Social PsychologyThe Dissolution of MindThe Duty to ProtectThe Educated ParentThe Ego TunnelThe Elephant in the RoomThe Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human ExperienceThe Emotional Foundations of PersonalityThe Emotional Journey of the Alzheimer's FamilyThe Encultured BrainThe Encyclopedia of StupidityThe Enduring Self in People with Alzheimer'sThe Epidemiology of SchizophreniaThe Essential DifferenceThe Ethical BrainThe Evolution of BeautyThe Evolution of ChildhoodThe Evolution of CooperationThe Evolution of LanguageThe Evolution of MindThe Evolving BrainThe Executive BrainThe Faces of TerrorismThe Feeling BrainThe Feeling of What HappensThe First IdeaThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Foundations of Cognitive ArchaeologyThe Fundamentalist MindsetThe GapThe Gender TrapThe Geography of BlissThe Gift of ShynessThe Good LifeThe Good LifeThe Happiness HypothesisThe Happiness of PursuitThe Health Psychology HandbookThe Healthy Aging BrainThe Heart of TraumaThe High Price of MaterialismThe History of PsychologyThe Human FaceThe Human SparkThe Hypomanic EdgeThe Imagery DebateThe Immeasurable MindThe Imprinted BrainThe Incredible Shrinking MindThe Innate MindThe Innate MindThe Integrated SelfThe Intentional BrainThe Language of ThoughtThe Languages of the BrainThe Lexicon of Adlerian PsychologyThe Lie DetectorsThe Lives of the BrainThe Lonely AmericanThe Lust for BloodThe Madness of WomenThe Male BrainThe Man Who Lost His LanguageThe Man Who Shocked the WorldThe Man Who Tasted ShapesThe Man Who Wasn't ThereThe Matter of the MindThe Mature MindThe Mean Girl MotiveThe Meaning of EvilThe Meaning of OthersThe Meaning of the BodyThe Measure of MadnessThe Measure of MindThe Medicalization of Everyday LifeThe Mind and the BrainThe Mind in ContextThe Mind of the ChildThe Mind of the HorseThe Mind's EyeThe Mind, the Body and the WorldThe Mind-Gut ConnectionThe Mindful BrainThe Misleading MindThe Moral MindThe Most Dangerous AnimalThe Most Human HumanThe Mother FactorThe Myth of ChoiceThe Myth of Depression as DiseaseThe Myth of Mirror NeuronsThe Myth of Self HelpThe Myth of Self-EsteemThe Myth of the Spoiled ChildThe Nature of the SelfThe Necessity Of MadnessThe Neuro RevolutionThe Neuron and the MindThe Neuropsychology of the UnconsciousThe Neuroscience of Human RelationshipsThe Neuroscience of PsychotherapyThe Neuroscience of Psychotherapy: Healing the Social BrainThe New BrainThe New Science of DreamingThe New Science of the MindThe New UnconsciousThe Normal PersonalityThe Origins of FairnessThe Overflowing BrainThe Oxford Companion to the MindThe Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of MindThe Paradoxical PrimateThe Perfectionist's HandbookThe Peripheral MindThe Phenomenology ReaderThe Philosopher's Secret FireThe Philosophical BabyThe Political MindThe Politics of HappinessThe Positive Side of Negative EmotionsThe Postnational SelfThe Postpartum EffectThe Power of PlayThe Praeger Handbook of TranssexualityThe Present Moment in Psychotherapy and Everyday LifeThe Primate MindThe Prism of GrammarThe Psychobiology of Trauma and Resilience Across the LifespanThe Psychological Construction of EmotionThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of HappinessThe Psychology of LifestyleThe Psychology of Religious FundamentalismThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of SpiritualityThe Psychology of StereotypingThe Psychology of SuperheroesThe Psychophysiology of Self-AwarenessThe Pursuit of PerfectThe Quest for Mental HealthThe Rational ImaginationThe Ravenous BrainThe Reasons of LoveThe Righteous MindThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Routledge Handbook of ConsciousnessThe Science of EvilThe Science of Intimate RelationshipsThe Science of Shame and its Treatment The Second SelfThe Secret History of EmotionThe Secret Lives of BoysThe Self and Its EmotionsThe Self-Sabotage CycleThe Sense of SelfThe Sensitive SelfThe Shape of ThoughtThe Social AnimalThe Social Nature of Mental IllnessThe Social Neuroscience of EmpathyThe Social Psychology of Good and EvilThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Story of Intellectual DisabilityThe Structure of ThinkingThe Survivors ClubThe Talking ApeThe Teenage BrainThe Tell-Tale BrainThe Temperamental ThreadThe Tender CutThe Tending InstinctThe Time ParadoxThe Trauma MythThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trouble with IllnessThe True PathThe Truth About GriefThe Turing TestThe Uncertain SciencesThe Undoing ProjectThe Unhappy ChildThe Upside of IrrationalityThe War for Children's MindsThe Well-Tuned BrainThe Wild Girl, Natural Man, and the MonsterThe Winner's BrainThe Wisdom in FeelingThe Woman RacketThe World in My Mind, My Mind in the WorldThe Wow ClimaxThe Yipping TigerThemes, Issues and Debates in PsychologyTheoretical Issues in Psychology: An IntroductionTheory of AddictionTheory of MindThings and PlacesThink CatThink Confident, Be ConfidentThinking about AddictionThinking and SeeingThis Emotional Life: In Search of Ourselves...and HappinessThought and LanguageThought in a Hostile WorldTo Have and To Hurt:Toward an Evolutionary Biology of LanguageToward Replacement Parts for the BrainTrauma and Human ExistenceTrauma, Tragedy, TherapyTreating Attachment DisordersTreating Self-InjuryTreating Self-Injury: A Practical GuideTrue to Our FeelingsTrusting the Subject?Understanding and Treating Borderline Personality DisorderUnderstanding ConsciousnessUnderstanding ParanoiaUnderstanding PeopleUnderstanding TerrorismUndoing Perpetual StressUnlock the Genius WithinUnsettled MindsUnstrange MindsUnthinkingUnthoughtUs and ThemViolent PartnersVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVision and MindVisual AgnosiaWarrior's DishonourWe Who Are DarkWednesday Is Indigo BlueWelcome to Your BrainWhat Do Women Want?What Dying People WantWhat Have We DoneWhat Intelligence Tests MissWhat Is an Emotion: Classic and Contemporary ReadingsWhat Is Emotion?What is Intelligence?What Is Mental Illness?What Is Thought?What Makes Your Brain Happy and Why You Should Do the Opposite What the Best College Students DoWhat the Dog SawWhat We Know about Emotional IntelligenceWhat We Say MattersWhat's Wrong With Morality?When Boys Become BoysWhen Perfect Isn't Good EnoughWhen the Impossible HappensWhen Walls Become DoorwaysWho's Been Sleeping in Your HeadWho's in Charge?Why Humans Like to CryWhy Love MattersWhy Lyrics LastWhy People CooperateWhy People Die by SuicideWhy Sex Matters: A Darwinian Look at Human BehaviorWhy Smart People Can Be So StupidWhy the Mind is Not a ComputerWhy Us?Why We LieWhy We LoveWhy We SleepWider than the SkyWilliam James at the BoundariesWilling, Wanting, WaitingWittgenstein And PsychologyWomen and Child Sexual AbuseWorking MindsYoga and PsychologyYou Are What You RememberYoung Minds in Social WorldsYour Brain on CubsYour Brain on FoodYour Brain on Food: How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings,Your Brain on YogaYour Child in the BalanceZombies and Consciousness
Cognition and Perception is an impressive and ambitious project, both for the width of its scope and the depth and variety of its goals. At the most general level, the book is a criticism of constructivist anti-realism in philosophy of science, which contends that all perception is theory-laden and there is no 'objective' dimension attached to it, and a defense of realism, according to which perception brings us in direct, although limited, contact with the world.
The minimal realism Raftopoulos defends holds "that objects, their spatiotemporal properties, and some of their observable features, all of which can be retrieved directly from a visual scene, are real -- that is, mind-independent -- entities and properties in the world." (xxiv) As we shall see, such information is retrieved by perception purely bottom-up and results in representational states with non-conceptual content.
The main features of the theory of perception Raftopoulos proposes do not lie in its novelty, for "the thesis of the continuity of perception and cognition" (xiv) has already been undermined both on psychological and neuroscientific grounds. Rather, Raftopoulos's aim is to amass all empirical evidence for the thesis of the cognitive impenetrability of perception and to apply these empirical findings to philosophical issues such as the nature of non-conceptual content and phenomenal content; perceptual demonstratives; the question of the theory-ladenness of perception; and the realism/ant-realism controversy. Accordingly, the book is divided into two parts, the first devoted to establishing the theory of the cognitive impenetrability of perception and the second to applying the empirically informed thesis of the cognitive encapsulation of perception to philosophical problems.
A terminological excursus will lead us into some of the details of Raftopoulos's view. The whole discussion is framed in terms, and at the same time is a defense, of a tripartite distinction between 'sensation', 'perception', and 'observation', which constitute various stages of visual processing. In brief, 'sensation' comprises non-cognitive early visual processing of retinal information, such as changes in light intensity (which allow us to decode information about surfaces). The computations performed at this level are automatic, non-conscious. The resulting representations of aspects of the world are, therefore, non-cognitive and need to be further articulated before they can be used by higher cognitive processes. Instances of this intermediate processing stage, which constitutes 'perception', are, for instance, computation of shape, spatial relations, orientation, size, motion, and surface properties. Both 'sensation' and 'perception', according to Raftopoulos's view, belong to early vision, and the difference between them lies in the kind of information that they process. As it will be clear in what follows, it is crucial to notice both 'perception' and 'sensation' are not subject to the influence of higher cognitive states -- or so Raftopoulos, amongst others, argues. All remaining visual processings which culminate in object identification and recognition belong to cognition or 'observation', which allows the formation of object-representations with semantic content.
Raftopoulos needs to establish this tripartite classification before he can use it in the philosophical framework of the second part of the book. As Machamer points out in his foreword, the role of attention in, and the timing of, low-level visual processings are the key elements in Raftopoulos's overall strategy to establish the thesis of the cognitive encapsulation of perception. In particular, Raftopoulos argues against theories of attention such as Treisman's 'Feature Integration Theory', which claim that attentional effects descend top-down from higher cognitive centers to low level peripheral visual processes to restrict information processing to specific parts in the visual field, and suggests a distinction of visual processing into a pre-attentional stage and a selective attentional stage based on the timing of attentional effects, which only seem to take place "100 or 120 ms after stimulus onset" (87).
In the former, pre-attentional, stage, the visual system parses objects primarily by means of spatio-temporal information (such as relative location, motion, spatio-temporal continuity), which is retrieved bottom-up from the visual scene (where necessary, low vision can also avail of featural information about object size, shape and color). This task is carried out by the feedforward sweep, a type of visual processing which transmits information bottom-up to higher brain structures without receiving top-down feedback. This is the stage of visual processing Raftopoulos calls object individuation, which involves a weak form of object representation devoid of semantic content. Early pre-attentional visual processing yield what Raftopoulos, borrowing the expression from Pylyshyn, labels 'proto-objects', which are processed by the visual system as spatio-temporal units, existing separately of other objects.
Object-individuation does not involve possession or application of concepts (it does not involve perception of an object as the object that it is), and the information it processes is not stored in any kind of conscious, retrievable, memory and cannot therefore be used for subsequent object-identification, which involves instead a strong form of object representation (according to which the object is categorized as falling under a certain description), and presupposes possession and application of the relevant concepts. It is the processings associated with object-identification which deliver the objects of ordinary perceptual experience.
Weak object representations are formed in the dorsal pathway, which subserves on-line visuomotor control and in which the information is processed automatically in a viewer-centered framework of reference, giving rise to absolute proto-object representations. Since at this stage there is no top-down cognitive direction of the visual processings, visual scenes are parsed or segmented into proto-objects according to operational principles or constraints which Raftopoulos claims to be hard-wired in the perceptual system.
None of these principles ['cohesion', 'boundness', 'rigidity', and 'no action at a distance' principles] is about specific objects. Instead, they reflect some very general properties of the world, and in this sense the process of early vision is not guided by expectations, by beliefs, or by any "object hypotheses" in general, in a top-down manner. The general assumptions about the physical world probably are built in the perceptual systems and act as constraints that guide perception. (105)
Unlike weak representations, the strong type of conscious object representation is formed in the ventral stream, in which information is processed in a relational framework of reference and object representations acquire semantic content through the effects of top-down conceptual influence.
The interesting upshot of the empirical work Raftopoulos refers to in the first part of the book is that there is a clear delimitation to what higher conceptual structures can influence top-down; moreover, such limit seems to be innately embedded in our perceptual circuitry. What falls outside the boundaries of cognitive influence, i.e. perceptual processes, seems to be structured according to "optico-spatial" (135) features of the world itself which function as rules that determine the content of perceptual states.
In the second half of the book, Raftopoulos explores the philosophical impact of the cognitively impenetrability of perception thesis. Raftopoulos's systematic philosophical discussion culminates in his defense of a minimal, or restricted, form of realism against both semantic and epistemological constructivism (chapter 8).
Against semantic constructivism, according to which linguistic terms have no determinate empirical content, Raftopoulos proposes his own theory of perceptual demonstratives (chapter 6) according to which the referent of mental perceptual states that can be linguistically articulated by demonstrative terms (like 'this' and 'that') is fixed in non-conceptual, bottom-up, ways. In brief, the proto-objects indexed in a visual scene by pre-attentional, object-centered, segmentation processes are enough to fix the referents of perceptual demonstratives, even though their object-files do not contain any descriptive information to identify the object in question. The segmentation processes which individuate the proto-objects are the causal link which grounds the mental perceptual demonstrative in the world directly, thus fixing its referent. The segmentation processes which individuate the proto-objects are the causal link (the information they process is not conceptual) which grounds the mental perceptual demonstrative in the world directly, thus fixing its referent. In this sense, according to Raftopoulos, perception puts us in a de re relation with the world, that is it puts us in direct contact with the object, without the mediation of a description which identifies the object. Once again, the parsing of a visual scene into discrete proto-objects is carried out according to the innate operational constraints of the visual system.
Raftopoulos's dismissal of semantic constructivism relies on the claim that perceptual states link us with the world directly, or, put differently, that perceptual states have non-conceptual content (chapter 4). His argument for the existence of such content is straightforward: the existence of cognitively encapsulated visual mechanisms (which Raftopoulos has established in the first half of the book) is both a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of non-conceptual content. In other words, once one accepts the former, one thereby has to accept the latter as the content of early visual states. Since early vision is constituted by both 'sensation' and 'perception', Raftopoulos further claims that sensory states are both non-conceptual and non-representational, while perceptual states are non-conceptual and representational, in the coarse sense of being presentations of object-types rather than object-tokens.
On this view, conceptual content is not arrived at by introspecting non-conceptual content. Rather, they are different types of content, formed at different stages of visual processing and subserved by different mechanisms. In particular, non-conceptual content depends on the feedforward sweep and the local recurrent processing; conceptual content requires instead global recurrent processing. In the context of this general dichotomy between conceptual and non-conceptual content, Raftopoulos identifies a further distinction within non-conceptual content. As we have seen, non-conceptual content is not defined in terms of subjective awareness, but, rather, in empirical terms. When it comes to the question of whether there is any form of consciousness attached to non-conceptual content (chapter 5), Raftopoulos claims that there is a subset of non-conceptual content, that is perceptual content, of which one can be phenomenally aware. Again, phenomenal content (or awareness) is defined empirically as non-conceptual content in which local recurrent processing occurs. Phenomenal awareness is a different type of awareness from access or report awareness, which depends on global recurrent processing. Moreover, unlike report awareness, phenomenal awareness takes place before the onset of attention and it carries limited and unstable spatio-temporal information about proto-objects size, shape, orientation, color, motion, symmetrical and topological relations, and functional properties.
The perceptual states which we thus directly (non-conceptually) 'apprehend' bottom-up are different from what has been rejected as 'the myth of the given', that is raw, unstructured, sensations which result from the causal influence of the world on the senses and which constitute the non-epistemic basis upon which our conceptual capacities apply in order to yield our ordinary experiences. The difference between phenomenal content and the 'given' as traditionally interpreted is that, according to Raftopoulos, the former provides us with a structured (re)presentation of the external world (or, more properly, we receive a structured reality bottom-up via perception), where the 'structuring' is carried out by the operational constraints embedded in our perceptual mechanisms. In this sense, phenomenal content is not about one's experience of the world; rather, it is about the world as represented in one's experience. Accordingly, the content of a belief (or any other higher cognitive state) formed on the basis of phenomenal or perceptual content is not about one's internal states; rather, it is about the world directly.
Once Raftopoulos has established that the cognitive encapsulated content of perceptual states is retrieved purely bottom-up, that it constitutes the theory-neutral basis of perceptual judgements (chapter 7), despite the epistemological constructivist claim to the contrary, and that it is structured enough to fix the referent of perceptual demonstrative states and to ground higher epistemic states (and, furthermore, that it is sustained by visual processing which allow a form of awareness which does not involve introspection), he can fully articulate his externalist defense of 'scientific realism' (chapter 8), and "argue that some of the outputs of perception (re)present things as they really are in the world." (328)
Traditional reliabilism does not have the necessary resources for this aim. Although it is hardly disputable that perception successfully guides our actions, this is not enough to "deal with what is the decisive point for realism, namely whether perceptual content carves the world in the right places." (337) Thus, the crucial issue is to establish that perception successfully guides action because non-conceptual perceptual content veridically presents the real properties of physical objects.
If this were not the case, Raftopoulos contends, perception would be systematically deceitful. But then, how can one account for the fact that perception-based actions are largely successful? Facing this dilemma, it seems that one has to admit
not only [that] the organism systematically misperceives environmental features, but also that it does so in a way that allows the errors to cancel one another out in all possible activities. I think that is unlikely. That perception gets the basic environmental parameters right, and that this is why actions are successful, is a much simpler and more plausible explanation of success. (347-8)
Once again, the crucial explanatory work here is done by the operational constraints of perceptual mechanisms, "which, by reflecting some reliable regularities about our environment, ensure successful interactions with that environment." (348)
Having analyzed some of the central theses put forth by Raftopoulos, we shall conclude with two critical remarks, one on the crucial empirical assumption upon which Raftopoulos's whole project rests and the second on his epistemological externalism.
It seems that Raftopoulos's thesis of the cognitive impenetrability of perception ultimately rests on his endorsement of a weak form of innatism, according to which there are some operational constraints in our visual processings which causally link perceptual states to worldly states of affairs. However, this proves not to be enough to articulate an adequate defense of realism, and Raftopoulos needs to further assume that such constraints carve up the world veridically. The argument in support of such assumption is that if it weren't so we would end up with a more complex explanation of why perception successfully guides action. Since the simplicity principle has a controversial status in the history of science, and given that it is not always applicable (as different formulations of quantum mechanics show), it seems that Raftopoulos's project would be strengthened by a more thorough defense of this assumption (and of his innatist thesis more generally) which is crucial for the success of his project.
On the epistemological side, the fact that Raftopoulos's externalism is empirically grounded in the cognitive encapsulation of perception doesn't seem enough to dispense it from answering some of the traditional objections to externalism. More specifically, there seems to be a gap between Raftopoulos’s claim that there is a causal link between empirical states, non-conceptual content and conceptual content and his theoretical assumption that the subject doesn’t need to know what justifies her epistemic deliberations in order for them to be justified. It is not clear, in other words, how the former empirical claim grounds the latter (meta)epistemological claim.
To conclude, my comments are not to detract in any way from the many merits of Raftopoulos's work, which should be mostly welcomed by both empirically minded philosophers and philosophically minded scientists.
© 2010 Simone Marini
Simone Marini is Ph.D. candidate in the School of Philosophy at UC Dublin.