email page print pageAll Topic Reviews
Health Care in America The Happiness of Burnout"Guns Don't Kill People, People Kill People""How Come Boys Get to Keep Their Noses?"17 Lies That Are Holding You Back20 Jazz Funk Greats50 Popular Beliefs That People Think Are TrueA Brief History of the SmileA Child of One's OwnA Citizen Legislature/A People's ParliamentA Clinician's Guide to Legal Issues in PsychotherapyA Colorful History of Popular DelusionsA Cultural History of Modern Science in ChinaA Cursing Brain?A History of Intelligence and "Intellectual Disability"A History of MarriageA History of PsychiatryA Little F'd UpA Loving Approach to Dementia CareA Man's Guide to Healthy AgingA Mind ApartA Mind So RareA Natural History of RapeA Natural History of VisionA Red Heart of MemoriesA Short History of MedicineA Student's Guide to the History And Philosophy of Yoga A Tear is an Intellectual ThingA Therapist's Guide to Understanding Common Medical ProblemsA Universe of ConsciousnessA User's Guide to the BrainA World Full of GodsABC of Eating DisordersABCs to Positive LivingAbnormal Psychology in ContextAbout FaceAccessible Yoga for Every Body DVDActs of ConscienceAdoption Beyond BordersAdvances in Culture and PsychologyAfter HarmAfter the Ecstasy, the LaundryAfter the Globe, Before the WorldAgainst the MachineAging Our WayAging ThoughtfullyAIDS & People with Severe Mental IllnessAkhenatenAl-JununAlgernon, Charlie and IAll About LoveAllergy ReliefAlone TogetherAlpha GirlsAltered EgosAltered StatesAlways On CallAm I Making Myself Clear?Am I Okay?AM/PM YogaAmerica in the FortiesAmerica's JailsAmerican Science Fiction Film and TelevisionAmong the Great ApesAn American ObsessionAn American SicknessAn Anthropologist on MarsAn Illustrated Book of Bad ArgumentsAn Odd Kind of FameAnatomy of an EpidemicAncient Greek and Roman SlaveryAnger, Madness, and the DaimonicAnimal ArchitectsAnimal MadnessAnimal MindsAnimals in TranslationAnother CountryAntimatterAre the Rich Necessary? Updated and Expanded EditionArt and PoliticsArtemis FowlAs Nature Made HimAsylumAsylum on the HillAsylum to ActionAt Liberty to DieAtonement and ForgivenessAttention Deficit DisorderAttitudeAuthentic HappinessBe Very AfraidBeautiful MindsBeauty's NothingBeckett and AnimalsBecoming a DoctorBeing VirtualBelle and Sebastian's If You're Feeling SinisterBest of the Brain from Scientific AmericanBetrayal TraumaBetter Sex Through YogaBeyond AIBeyond GreekBeyond HealthBeyond ReasonBeyond ToleranceBibliotherapyBipolar DisorderBlack Man in a White CoatBlack MassBlind SpotsBlinkBlood and GutsBodies out of BoundsBody Piercing Saved My LifeBorn Standing UpBOSH!Brain LongevityBrain-Based Teaching for All SubjectsBrainchildrenBrainwashingBread Upon the WatersBreaking Murphy's LawBreaking WomenBreathingBrian Eno's Another Green WorldBrief EncountersBritain on the CouchBrothelBuddhism and ScienceBuilding Healthy MindsBullspottingBullying PreventionBurn UnitBuzzC StreetCalling Our Spirits HomeCamp ZCampus Sexual AssaultCan't You Hear Them?Cancer on $5 a Day* *(chemo not included)Cato's TearsCaughtChained to the DeskChickenizing Farms and FoodChild Slaves in the Modern WorldChildren's Learning in a Digital WorldChina on the MindChoices and ConflictChoosing CivilityChronic Fatigue Syndrome (The Facts)Classical Pilates Technique DVDCleopatraClinical Psychopharmacology Made Ridiculously SimpleClosing the AsylumsCognition, Creativity, and BehaviorCognitive Neuroscience of EmotionCollege Inc.Coming of Age in AmericaComing of Age in Ancient GreeceConceptual BlockbustingConcrete ReveriesConducting Insanity EvaluationsConfronting Postmaternal ThinkingConnected, or What It Means to Live in the Network SocietyConsciousnessConsider the LobsterConsuming InnocenceContagiousControlConversations About Psychology and Sexual OrientationCool WomenCorpora in Language Acquisition ResearchCorrect EnglishCorrupted CultureCount Us InCovered in InkCreative AngerCreative Core AbsCreative ThinkeringCreative Writing In Health And Social CareCreatures of AccidentCrime and Punishment in AmericaCritical ConditionCritical Perspectives in Public HealthCritical Psychology: An IntroductionCross-Cultural Topics in PsychologyCrossingCrossing the Unknown SeaCruddyCultural Healing and Belief SystemsCulture and Subjective Well-BeingCustomers and Patrons of the Mad-TradeCyber BullyingCyber-Safe Kids, Cyber-Savvy TeensDance the Chakras Yoga WorkoutDancing After HoursDangerous EmotionsDarwin's Dangerous IdeaDarwin's LegacyDeaf Identities in the MakingDeath in the AirDebunked!DeceptionDecoding DarknessDeep GossipDefenders of the TruthDefining Moments in ScienceDefying DementiaDeinstitutionalization And People With Intellectual DisabilitiesDematerializingDementiaDementia Caregivers Share Their StoriesDementia ReimaginedDemocracy in ChainsDemocracy StrugglesDemons of the Body and MindDemons of the Modern WorldDepression In Later LifeDirty DetailsDiscourse of Twitter and Social MediaDistractedDivine MadnessDMT and the Soul of ProphecyDo-It-Yourself Eye Movement Techniques for Emotional HealingDoes Science Need a Global Language?Doing GoodDoing HarmDon't Believe Everything You ThinkDon't Get Too ComfortableDr. Andrew Weil's Guide to Optimum HealthDr. Andrew Weil's Mindbody ToolkitDreaming and Other Involuntary MentationDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV-TR Case StudiesDuplicityDutiful DaughtersDying for TimeEarthly Bodies, Magical SelvesEastern Body, Western MindEating AnimalsEccentricsEcological MedicineEducating People to Be Emotionally IntelligentEinstein and OppenheimerElectroshockElliott Smith and the Big NothingEmergence and EmbodimentEmergencies in Mental Health PracticeEmotionEmotional Intelligence at WorkEmotions RevealedEncyclopedia of Asylum Therapeutics, 1750-1950sEntwined LivesErotic PassionsEssentials of Cas AssessmentEssentials of Wais-III AssessmentEthics for the New MillenniumEvamarie Pilipuf's Yoga Express DVDEvery Day Yoga for Every Body DVDEveryday GreensEveryday IrrationalityEveryday SimplicityEverything Is MiscellaneousEvolutionEvolution and Human BehaviorEvolution in MindEvolution's RainbowExploring the Edge Realms of ConsciousnessExuberanceEyes of SophiaFalling for ScienceFalse-Memory Creation in Children and AdultsFamilyFamily Desk Reference to Psychology Family MurderFashion and Its Social AgendasFashion, Desire And AnxietyFast, Fresh & GreenFat and FuriousFear and Other Uninvited GuestsFearless ConfessionsFeminist Philosophy And Science FictionFinal ExamFine LinesFixing My GazeFlesh of My FleshFlesh WoundsFlirting With DangerFlow and YinFlying ColorsFocusFood for Thought:Food, Medicine, and the Quest for Good HealthFool Me TwiceFreedom, Fame, Lying, and BetrayalFridaFrom Certainty to UncertaintyFrom Joy Division to New OrderFull Frontal Feminism: A Young Woman's Guide to Why Feminism MattersFull Steam Ahead!Galileo Goes to Jail and Other Myths about Science and ReligionGang of Four's EntertainmentGender and Its Effects on PsychopathologyGender and Mental HealthGeneration DigitalGenetics of Mental DisordersGeniusGenomeGetting a Good Night's SleepGetting Inside Your HeadGetting WastedGilded CityGirl in the CurlGirlfightingGirls Gone MildGirls on the VergeGod and the MultiverseGoing Into TownGood FortuneGood KarmaGood MedicineGood WorkGracefully InsaneGrassroots SpiritualityGreat Psychologists and Their TimeGulpHabeas CorpusHalf a Brain Is EnoughHandbook of AttachmentHappinessHappinessHappiness Is.Hate Crimes in CyberspaceHealingHealing SpacesHealth And the MediaHealth OnlineHearing the Person With DementiaHeavier than HeavenHello from Heaven!HelmholtzHelvetica: A documentary filmHemalayaa's Yoga for Young Bodies DVDHemingway's Second WarHerbs for the MindHere Is New YorkHeroes, Rogues, and LoversHeterophobiaHidden MindsHistory of ShitHistory of SuicideHoly Sh*tHoly WarHooked!Hot Body Cool Mind - Level 1Hot Body Cool Mind: Waking Energy Hot Chocolate for the Mystical LoverHot SpotsHotHouseHouse and PsychologyHow Children Learn the Meanings of WordsHow Doctors ThinkHow Emotions WorkHow History Gets Things WrongHow Not to Get ShotHow Our Lives Become StoriesHow Proust Can Change Your LifeHow Science WorksHow to Be a PatientHow to Build a Robot ArmyHow to Cook Everything VegetarianHow to Do NothingHow to Grow OldHow to Handle a Hard-To-Handle KidHow We AgeHow We Are Changed by WarHumankindHungerHysteria Complicated by EcstasyI Contain MultitudesI Know Who You Are and I Saw What You Did: Social Networks and the Death of PrivacyI of the VortexI Only Say This Because I Love YouI, Little AsylumIdiot AmericaIf Men Could TalkIgnoranceIllness and ImageImagining NumbersImprove Your Writing With NLPIn Bed with MadnessIn Defense of FoodIn Praise of ScienceIn Pursuit of HappinessIn Search of FatimaIn the Line of DutyIn the Shadows of the NetIn Therapy We TrustIndivisible by TwoInsight Yoga with Sarah PowersIntegrative MedicineIntensive CareInternational Perspectives on Reminiscence, Life Review and Life Story WorkInto the Gray ZoneIntroduction to Ashtanga Yoga DVDIntroduction to Qi YogaIntroduction to Yoga DVDInvented KnowledgeInvestigating Digital CrimeIrrationalityIs Shame Necessary?IshtarIt's Up to YouJanis Saffell Beverly Hills YogaJudo with WordsKanye West's My Beautiful Dark Twisted FantasyKids OnlineKilling MonstersKinds of MindsKissing DoorknobsKnowing the Nature of FearKnowledge MonopoliesKundalini Yoga for Beginners & BeyondLandscapes in My MindLaw, Mind and BrainLearning About School ViolenceLearning, Teaching and Education Research in the 21st CenturyLessons Learned on My Way HomeLicentious GothamLies! Lies! Lies!Life CoachingLife MakeoversLimboListening in the Silence, Seeing in the DarkListening to PainListening to the WorldLiteratures of MadnessLittle PeopleLittle Red Riding Hood UncloakedLiving DeeplyLiving Well with Pain and IllnessLiving with ArthritisLiving with SchizophreniaLiving, Thinking, LookingLocking Up Our OwnLoneliness as a Way of LifeLong Shadow of Small GhostsLosing My MindLove and Sex with RobotsLove Your Body, Love Your LifeLove, Sex & TragedyLust in TranslationMad Mary LambMade in AmericaMadhur Jaffrey's World VegetarianMadnessMadness in CivilizationMaidentripMake It CountMake It Fast, Cook It SlowMaking Babies the Hard WayMaking Dying IllegalMaking SpaceMaking the Big LeapMaking Your Mind MatterMale Female EmailMalefemaleMan As The PrayerManaged Care ContractingMandated Reporting of Suspected Child AbuseManic Depression and CreativityManlinessManning UpMapping the MindMarriage ConfidentialMary Pope Osborne's Tales from the OdysseyMaster PassionsMasters of the MindMathematical DoodlingsMatters of SubstanceMean GenesMedia ArgumentationMedia in the Digital AgeMediating MadnessMedical AnthropologyMedicine and Health Care in Early ChristianityMedicine and Philosophy in Classical AntiquityMedieval Writings on Female SpiritualityMemoires 1995Memory, Brain, and BeliefMental Health and Social SpaceMental Health MattersMental Illness in Popular MediaMerchants of DoubtMild Cognitive Impairment and Early Alzheimer's DiseaseMiles to Go for FreedomMillennium GirlsMind in Everyday Life and Cognitive ScienceMind WarsMind, Matter and Quantum MechanicsMindstormsMisconceptionsMissing PiecesMistakes Were Made (But Not by Me)Mollie Katzen's RecipesMom's OK, She Just ForgetsMonsters, Demons and PsychopathsMoody BitchesMoral PanicsMorals Not KnowledgeMore Than MedicineMortificationMothers Who Kill Their ChildrenMusicophiliaMy Bloody Valentine's LovelessMy Life Among the Serial KillersMy Misspent YouthMy Stroke of InsightNakedNaked CityNarratives in PsychiatryNations Have the Right to KillNatureNear Death ExperienceNeurons and NetworksNeuroscience in Science Fiction FilmsNever Home AloneNever Out of SeasonNew Versions of VictimsNew YorkNew York September 11Not a Crime to Be PoorNot by DesignNot Your Mother's LifeNothing to HideNurembergNymphomaniaOath BetrayedObesityObjects of Our DesireObliquityOdd CouplesOf Spirits & MadnessOf Two MindsOld AgeOn BlindnessOn Fact and FraudOn the BrinkOn the Origin of StoriesOn TrailsOne Nation Under TherapyOpening to Love 365 Days a YearOptimizing Teaching and LearningOtherhoodOur Symphony with AnimalsOut of the DustOutliersOutsider ArtOver My HeadOxford Guide to the MindPainParanoia of Everyday LifeParents Do Make a DifferenceParty GirlPassingPassionate VegetarianPathways through PainPeople Like OurselvesPerceptual NeurosciencePersons and ThingsPestos, Tapenades, and SpreadsPhilosophy of MindPhotography and LiteraturePilates for MenPink ThinkPlanning for UncertaintyPoets on ProzacPostcards from the Brain MuseumPosthumanismPotatoes Not ProzacPower HerbsPower Yoga for HappinessPoxPractical ClassicsPractical Plans for Difficult Conversations in MedicinePracticing Feminist Ethics in PsychologyPrader-Willi SyndromePredictably IrrationalPretty in PunkPretty Is What ChangesPreventing Misbehavior in ChildrenPrime Ministers of CanadaPrint Literacy DevelopmentPrison MadnessPrivate Life in New Kingdom EgyptProblems in MindProtecting the GiftProust and the SquidPrudePsyche on the SkinPsychiatryPsychiatry in the New MilleniumPsychiatrylandPsychologyPsychology and the MediaPsychology for ScreenwritersPsychotherapy and ConfidentialityPublic Health LawPunishment in Popular CulturePure Yoga Pilates with Kerry BestwickQuantum ArchetypesQuantum LeapsR.I.P.Race in Contemporary MedicineRacial ParanoiaRaising a Self-StarterRaising AmericaReady for AnythingReady or NotReady or Not, Here Life ComesReal SexReckoning With HomelessnessReclaiming Our ChildrenReclaiming Soul in Health CareRed Lotus YogaRed Meat RepublicReligion ExplainedRemaking a WorldRepublic.com 2.0Rethinking CommodificationRethinking Middle YearsReviving OpheliaReviving the LeftRewarding Specialties for Mental Health CliniciansRick SingsRights, Risk and Restraint-Free Care of Older PeopleSabbathSame DifferenceSamuel BeckettSatisfactionSavedScared SickScienceScience and NonbeliefScience in the MarketplaceScience TalkScience WarsScience, Consciousness and Ultimate RealitySecond OpinionsSeeds of HopeSelected Ambient Works Volume IISelf Hypnosis for Cosmic ConsciousnessSelf-Help NationSelf-Help, Inc.Selling the Fountain of YouthSells like Teen SpiritSerious ShoppingSeven Challenges To Change Your Life DVDSex, Mom, and GodSex, Time and PowerSexing the BodySexual Orientation and School PolicySexy FeminismShadow, Self, SpiritShop Class as SoulcraftShrink RapSick to Death and Not Going to Take It AnymoreSimulation and Its DiscontentsSinfully VeganSister CitizenSleeping With Extra-TerrestrialsSlut!Snake Oil ScienceSnoopSo Brilliantly CleverSocial RepresentationsSolar Flow Yoga DVDSold on LanguageSome Kind of GeniusSometimes Madness Is WisdomSorting Things OutSoul Made FleshSounds from the Bell JarSoupsSpace, Place and Mental HealthSpeaking Our MindsSpiritual CrisisSpontaneous HealingStates of MindStatus AnxietyStiffedStill HereStill LivesStrange BehaviorStrategies of Commitment and Other EssaysStrength, Grace, HealingStroke DiariesStumbling on HappinessSun SalutationsSuper Natural CookingSuperhumanSuperstitionSupersurvivorsSurgery JunkiesSwordfishtrombonesSylvia Plath ReadsTalk to HerTalking About RaceTalking Back to PsychiatryTalking Heads' Fear of MusicTalking ScienceTeach Yourself MeditationTeaching OnlineTeaching SexTech GenerationTeen LoveTeenageTextbook of Cultural PsychiatryThanks!The 101 Best Graphic NovelsThe Age of American UnreasonThe Alice Behind WonderlandThe American HotelThe American ParadoxThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Clinical PsychiatryThe Americanization of Social ScienceThe Anatomy of HopeThe Anatomy of MelancholyThe Angelica Home KitchenThe Antibiotic EraThe Ape and the Sushi MasterThe Architecture of MadnessThe Arctic IncidentThe Art of ChoosingThe Art of Exceptional LivingThe Audience EffectThe Bard on the BrainThe Barmaid's BrainThe Beginner's Guide to Healthy EatingThe Better to Eat You WithThe Biotech CenturyThe Birth of PleasureThe Birth of the PillThe Black DeathThe Blackwell Handbook of Organizational Learning and Knowledge ManagementThe Book of the PenisThe Brain That Changes ItselfThe Breathing FieldThe Bridge to HumanityThe Brooklyn Nobody KnowsThe Bully SocietyThe Cafe Brenda CookbookThe Call of the WeirdThe Cambridge Illustrated History of MedicineThe Case against EducationThe Case Against SugarThe Childless RevolutionThe Clitoral TruthThe Collected SchizophreniasThe Complete Guide to Herbal MedicinesThe Complete Vegetarian HandbookThe Consolations of PhilosophyThe Contemplative HeartThe Couch and the TreeThe Course of Gay and Lesbian LivesThe Creation of the Modern WorldThe Cult of PharmacologyThe Cultural Origins of Human CognitionThe Culture of FearThe Culture of PunishmentThe Da Vinci DogThe Dark Night of the SoulThe Deadly TruthThe Decency WarsThe Digital MindThe Disobedience Of The Daughter Of The SunThe Diversity DelusionThe Drum That Beats Within UsThe Dynamic NeuronThe Easy Yoga WorkbookThe Emotional BrainThe Emotional Journey of the Alzheimer's FamilyThe Employee Assistance Treatment PlannerThe End of MaterialismThe End of WarThe English and their HistoryThe Enigma of HealthThe Era of ChoiceThe Eternity CubeThe EvangelicalsThe Event of LiteratureThe Evolving WorldThe f WordThe Fabulous ImaginationThe Faces of TerrorismThe Farm Colonies: Caring for New York City's Mentally Ill In Long Island's State HospitalsThe Fat Studies ReaderThe Fate of Early MemoriesThe Female ThingThe Fight Against DoubtThe Final LeapThe Firmament of TimeThe Five Things We Cannot Change ...The ForgettingThe Game of TruthThe Get Healthy, Go Vegan CookbookThe Gift of FearThe Gold Leaf Lady and Other Parapsychological InvestigationsThe Good Enough ChildThe Great BetrayalThe Greatest Experiment Ever Performed on WomenThe Guide for White Women Who Teach Black BoysThe HandThe Handbook of Disability StudiesThe Happiness HypothesisThe Healing Remedies SourcebookThe Health Psychology HandbookThe Healthy KitchenThe Heart of YogaThe Hedgehog's DilemmaThe Hero's JourneyThe History of Rhetoric and the Rhetoric of HistoryThe History of White PeopleThe Homework MythThe Hungry SoulThe Identity CodeThe Immortalization Commission:The Importance of Being LazyThe Indian VegetarianThe Insider's Guide to Mental Health Resources OnlineThe Insider's Guide to Mental Health Resources OnlineThe Insider's Guide to Mental Health Resources OnlineThe Insider's Guide to Mental Health Resources OnlineThe Intelligibility of NatureThe Interdisciplinary Science of ConsumptionThe Intuitive WriterThe Invisible PlagueThe Irreducible Needs of ChildrenThe Irritable Male SyndromeThe Jewel Tree of TibetThe Joy of MeditatingThe Language ImperativeThe Language Of YogaThe Language PoliceThe Language WarsThe Last PhysicianThe Last Self-Help Book You'll Ever NeedThe Law Is a White DogThe Lie DetectorsThe Little Book of Healthy TeasThe Little Book of HeartbreakThe Little Soy BookThe Little Yoga BookThe Lives and Loves of Daisy and Violet HiltonThe Lives of AnimalsThe Lolita EffectThe Lonely PatientThe Loss of Self: A Family Resource for the Care of Alzheimer's Disease and Related DisordersThe Lucifer EffectThe Lucifer PrincipleThe Madness of Adam and EveThe Madwoman in the AtticThe Magic of RealityThe Making of Dr. PhilThe Manual of EpictetusThe Marketplace of IdeasThe Mature MindThe Measure of Our DaysThe Meat Lover's Meatless CookbookThe Medical AdvisorThe Medicalization of SocietyThe Metaphysical ClubThe Mind's PastThe Misunderstood GeneThe MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive SciencesThe Monster WithinThe Mood CureThe Moral Intelligence of ChildrenThe Mystery of Mary RogersThe Myth of Freedom and the Way of MeditationThe Nature FixThe New BrainThe New Cancer SurvivorsThe NineThe Nordic Theory of EverythingThe Norm ChroniclesThe Normal OneThe Obesity EpidemicThe Omnivorous MindThe Orchid ThiefThe Origin and Evolution of CulturesThe Origin of AnxietiesThe Oxford Book of Modern Science WritingThe Oxford Illustrated History of the WorldThe Pain AntidoteThe Paradox of ChoiceThe Paradox of SleepThe Paranoia SwitchThe Passion PlanThe Pastoral Counseling Treatment PlannerThe PatchThe Patient as Agent of Health and Health CareThe PDR Family Guide to Natural Medicines & Healing TherapiesThe Physics of ConsciousnessThe PlaceboThe Placebo Effect and HealthThe Playful BrainThe Pocket Life CoachThe Portfolio and the DiagramThe Power of FocusThe Power of Full EngagementThe Praeger Handbook of Learning and the BrainThe Private Life of the BrainThe Professor and the MadmanThe Psychoanalytic MysticThe Psychology of Religion and CopingThe Psychology Of The InternetThe Psychotherapy Documentation PrimerThe Quantum UniverseThe Quarter-Acre FarmThe Race for ConsciousnessThe Real Rules for GirlsThe Red DevilThe Republican BrainThe Richer SexThe Rise and Fall of Classical GreeceThe Rise of Mental Health NursingThe Roman Search for WisdomThe Root of All EvilThe Routledge Companion to Landscape StudiesThe Same Stuff as StarsThe Savage CityThe Science of Good and EvilThe Science of Optimism and HopeThe Scientific AttitudeThe Scientist In The CribThe Seat of the SoulThe Second SelfThe Secret History of DreamingThe Secret Lives of GirlsThe Secret World of Doing NothingThe Seven Sins of MemoryThe ShakeressThe ShallowsThe Social Psychology of StigmaThe Sociology of PhilosophiesThe Sociopath Next DoorThe Soul Knows No BarsThe Spa DeckThe Spiritual Anatomy of EmotionThe Split MindThe Star ThrowerThe Story Is TrueThe Storytelling AnimalThe Strange Case of Hellish NellThe Symmetry of GodThe Talking CureThe Thing You Think You Cannot DoThe Thorn NecklaceThe Three CulturesThe Three Failures of CreationismThe Toxic ConsumerThe Triumph of NarrativeThe True PathThe Truth About AnimalsThe Truth About Chronic PainThe UndertakingThe Volitional BrainThe Wages of SinThe War Against BoysThe Way of StretchingThe Way We Eat NowThe Weblog HandbookThe Weight of the NationThe Why CaféThe Wild Ass’s SkinThe Will to Live and Other MysteriesThe Wisdom of FrugalityThe Wisdom of PsychopathsThe Wisdom of Your DreamsThe Words We Live ByThe World of CaffeineThe Worldwide Practice of TortureThe Worst-Case Scenario Survival HandbookThe Wow ClimaxTheaters of MadnessTheatre and AnimalsTheories of Scientific MethodTherapeutic LandscapesTheraScribe 4.0Think CatThink SmartThinking for a ChangeThinking With AnimalsThrough Deaf EyesToo Big to FailTooning InTop ChefTortured SubjectsTotal AstangaTotal PilatesTotally WiredTowards a Science of Consciousness IIITrain Your Brain to Get RichTransforming MadnessTraumatic PastsTreating People WellTreatment and Rehabilitation of Severe Mental IllnessTreatment Kind and FairTribal ScienceTrick or TreatmentTrusting DoctorsTry to RememberTutoring as a Successful BusinessTwelve Examples of IllusionTwinsUnder the Medical GazeUnderstanding and Treating Violent Psychiatric PatientsUnderstanding Child MolestersUnderstanding FitnessUnforgettableUnholy MadnessUnscientific AmericaUnspeakable Acts, Ordinary PeopleUnto OthersUp From DragonsUrban Tourism and Urban ChangeUseful BodiesValues in ConflictVarieties of Anomalous ExperienceVegan ExpressVegan Recipes from the Middle EastVegetarian Turkish CookingVegetarianoVertigo VisionsVictorian Popularizers of ScienceViniyoga Therapy for the Low Back, Sacrum and HipsViolence Against WomenVoices Of Alzheimer'sVoices of CaregivingVoices of MadnessVoluntary SimplicityWaking Up to What You DoWalkingWalking a Literary LabyrinthWall: A World DividedWarWays of HearingWays of KnowingWays of KnowingWe Shall Be No MoreWe Shall Not Be MovedWe've Got BlogWellbeingWhat Emotions Really AreWhat I Learned in Medical SchoolWhat in the World Are Your Kids Doing Online?What Makes Us Think?What Nietzsche Really SaidWhat Our Children Teach UsWhat Science Offers the HumanitiesWhat Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and LiteracyWhat's Holding You Back? What's So Wrong with Being Absolutely RightWhen a Family Member Has DementiaWhen Experiments TravelWhen Good Thinking Goes BadWhen History Is a NightmareWhen Johnny and Jane Come Marching HomeWhen Mothers KillWhen Sex Goes to SchoolWhen Someone You Know Is Living in a Dementia Care CommunityWhen Things Fall ApartWhere Biology Meets PsychologyWhere Good Ideas Come FromWhere is the Mango Princess?Wherever You Go, There You AreWhile They SleptWhispers from the EastWhite Privilege UnmaskedWhite RageWho Rules in ScienceWhy Are We Attracted to Sad Music?Why Does E=mc2?Why Don't Students Like SchoolWhy God Won't Go AwayWhy Have Kids?Will They Ever Trust Us Again?WisdomWise Mind, Open MindWitch Beliefs and Witch Trials in the Middle AgesWitchcrazeWith Their EyesWithin ReasonWomanWomen and Mental IllnessWorking With Emotional IntelligenceWriting in FlowYogaYoga & Pilates Workouts for DummiesYoga Beauty BodyYoga for EveryoneYoga for People Who Can't Be Bothered to Do ItYoga for Regular GuysYoga for Regular Guys DVDYoga In BedYoga on DemandYoga SanctuaryYoga SculptYoga ShaktiYoga To Go's Yoga Quick Fixes DVDYogalosophyYou Are Not Your IllnessYou'd Be So Pretty If . . .Your Miracle BrainZen Encounters with LonelinessZen-Brain Reflections
Those readers who are familiar with the ongoing public debate between evolution and creationism no doubt recognize Steve Fuller's name from his appearance as an expert witness for the defense in the 2005 Kitzmiller v. Dover trial, as well as his earlier book Science v. Religion? Intelligent Design and the Problem of Evolution (Fuller 2007). The theme in Fuller's present book, Science, in "The Art of Living" series, further develops the theme he has advocated previously: modern science is intimately grounded in Christian theology. Fuller summarizes his thesis in the opening section: "the art of living scientifically involves taking theology much more seriously than either practicing scientists or religious believers are inclined to do" (p.1). The claim that Fuller is defending is no doubt controversial and provocative -- and oddly familiar (at least to those with knowledge of Fuller's earlier entries in the foray). However, I do not aim to prejudice the reader who is not familiar with Fuller's previous works; it is with these readers in mind that I approach this text.
In the brief introductory remarks, Fuller gestures at the goals for the rest of the book: "I take science's progressive future to require a return to its original theological impulse, even if that means subverting or otherwise criticizing the current scientific establishment in search for a more inclusive universal truth" (p.3). That is to say, science requires faith that its goals will materialize, and given the track record of current scientific establishment, Fuller claims that this faith is misplaced. As for the bulk of the text, each of the chapters 1 through 9 aims to further explore the main thesis, if from different vantage points. The last chapter is a bibliographic essay with suggestions for further readings. The argument in the book is not cumulative in that the chapters do not build up on each other. Rather, the approach is akin to death by a thousand cuts as each chapter charges against the current scientific establishment from a different angle.
In Chapter 1, Fuller calls "faith in science" "the modern superstition" (p.6) because he finds the public acceptance of science perplexing, especially in light of "science's actual track record" (p.6). Fuller discusses the public perception of science, and claims that this is remarkable, given all the follies of science. Still, despite these follies, Fuller sees scientists as committed to the pursuit of knowledge as an end in itself; it is in this sense that science has sublimated, rather than eliminated, God (p.15). In doing so, science (by which Fuller seems to mean the inquiry as pursued by the current scientific establishment -- but more about this later) has not remained true to its origins. Here Fuller makes the bold claim that the intelligent design theory, roundly rejected by scientists, has remained more true to the ideals of science than the neo-Darwinists have: "Its proponents [the intelligent design theorists] refuse to inhabit a schizoid world in which everything that appears designed is the product of designing intelligence except nature itself, whose complex organization Darwinists attribute to chance-based processes that extend into the indefinite past" (pp.16-17). Turning to recent advances in biology -- genetics and molecular biology -- Fuller asserts that its history "can be told with minimal reference to Darwin" (p.17); as for Darwin, Fuller thinks he will become to be seen as "an able natural historian and taxonomist who underestimated our ability to penetrate the nature of life by virtue of his skepticism of life's progressive and mathematical character, which is what he rejected in Lamarck and Mendel, respectively" (p.17).
In Chapter 2, Fuller argues that for the scientific enterprise (or any enterprise, for that matter) to remain legitimate, its "intellectual parents should recognize their children" (p.24). Fuller raises concerns that in this respect, science is the wayward child. He imagines Sir Isaac Newton being resurrected in the present-day world -- and becoming offended if told that "we still like his physics in spite -- not because -- of the theological baggage he thought was necessary to appreciate its full significance" (p.23). In similar vein, Fuller imagines what the reactions from Plato and Aristotle (pp.51-52) and Galileo (pp.83-84) would be to the sciences as practiced today. Galileo, in particular, would "regard bastions of the scientific establishment, such as the US National Academy of Sciences and the Royal Society of London as comparable to the Vatican in his own day" (p.83). That is, all these institutions "have sought to minimize the reasonableness of dissent" (p.83). (If we were to apply the title question of Chapter 2 ("Can science live with its past?) to Fuller's own views, it is here that he passes with flying colors. Fuller's aforementioned appearance as an expert witness for the defense in the Kitzmiller v. Dover trial was succinctly summed up by Judge John Jones, who characterized Fuller as offering "an affirmative action program ... for a view that has been unable to gain foothold within the scientific establishment" (Kitzmiller v. Dover, 70-71). With the current book, the only thing that seems to have changed is the intended audience.)
In Chapter 4, Fuller turns to look at science through the lens of the history of Christianity, and argues that just as reformation challenged the authority of the Catholic Church, today's individuals are losing their faith in the authority of the scientific establishment. But, Fuller asserts, "it would be a mistake to conclude that people are losing their faith in science per se; rather they are losing the compulsion to conform to a specific orthodoxy that is upheld by a specially anointed class of priests" (p.83). So, just as it made little sense to call the dissenting protestants 'atheists' just because they rejected the orthodoxy, Fuller claims it makes equally little sense to call someone who rejects the scientific establishment 'anti-scientific'. This latter restorationist movement Fuller dubs 'Protscience', and he goes on to detail what it entails. In brief, "today's Protscientists wish to revive the empowering spirit of scientific enquiry from the institutions that shackle it" (p.62). The spirit of scientific inquiry remains vibrant among the general public and, Fuller claims, it should allowed to remain such. If "science aims to provide the most comprehensive understanding of reality that is potentially available to all rational beings" (p.65), scientists and scientific institutions ought not hold this under lock and key, and mete it out according to their own rules.
In Chapter 6, Fuller questions the notion that atheism has made positive contributions for science. Atheism, as Fuller takes it, is "the simple denial of religious authority on matters of knowledge and morals" (p.86). In contrast, there is Atheism (with capital 'A'), "quite explicitly anti-God belief in the West [which] provides the metaphysical backdrop for Darwinism" (p.87). In Fuller's view, however, neither atheism nor Atheism has been significantly pro-science. On the contrary, Fuller views that science has contributed more to Atheism: "Darwin gave Atheists reasons for believing that, at least in principle, a durable sense of order could arise from disorder" (p.98). Atheism (with either spelling) started off as an ethical view, but after being elevated to a view that one could justifiably hold in public, it has branched into epistemological matters. Nevertheless, what Atheism has to offer is "an ethic of equanimity and even resignation, certainly not a drive to remake the planet, if not the universe, to our own purposes" (p.111). According to Fuller, following the implications of Darwinism (as Atheists are wont to do) leads to unadulterated nihilism: "There is something profoundly irrational in hitching one's fate to a theory in which all that is meaningful is ultimately based on chance-based processes" (p.146).
The foregoing survey touches only some of the claims Fuller advances in his book; to cover each of them would extend this review to unreasonable lengths. Instead, I have opted for the above, representative selection, which I wish to comment further. First of all, the fact I found most curious -- and, at times, very aggravating -- about Fuller's book was that he never defines what science is. Granted, he comes close to this at times -- "Here we need to be clear what is meant by 'science'" (p.102). Instead of providing a clear answer, he digresses into giving an ideological history of the relationship between science and religion, and one that represents his view on the nature of science. The best I can gather is that Fuller views science as an ideology -- and one that has outlived its usefulness. Early on in Chapter 1, Fuller questions the track record of science: "There would be no aerial warfare, mass surveillance, mass extinctions, forced sterilizations, gas chambers, nuclear threats, environmental despoliation or global warming without many of the most advanced natural and social sciences" (p.5). Granted, these items would have to be accounted for in a comprehensive track record of science. But curiously, Fuller focuses on just the worst of science's accomplishments -- or, more accurately, the worst of what science has been used. Another question worth considering here is, whether science has been anything but a mere instrument for some underlying (either religious or political) motivations? Had there not been any gas chambers, would this have stopped the Final Solution and all its atrocities? Had there not been airplanes (and, subsequently, aerial warfare), would wars have been any less gruesome? Still, Fuller does make a valuable point here: any ideology needs to be judged by all of its consequences -- both positive and negative. Curiously, Fuller's list is cherry-picked to contain only the worst outcomes, without mentioning, e.g., that the racial purity doctrines held by the Nazis were rejected by scientists as pseudoscience. And here one wonders -- quite rightly -- how religions or political ideologies would fare if they were judged only by the worst outcomes they have generated.
Throughout the book, Fuller makes no secret that he is viewing science through the same lens as he applies to religion. But as to how Fuller conceives of this relationship, it is not immediately clear to the reader. Other authors have used various military metaphors -- for instance, likening the science-religion relationship to the American Civil War or to the Vietnam War (Miller 2008, chs.1 and 8, respectively) -- but they have not insisted that everything in science must conform to military history. Fuller, in contrast, seems to be asserting the opposite. More curious is Fuller's claim that in order to understand "our continuing faith in science" we do best to treat it as "the secular residue of a religiously inspired belief in Divine Providence" (p.1). That is, according to Fuller, the best model for explaining science and its reception in the contemporary society can be found in the history of Christianity. Here one wonders how we are to understand the nature of science itself; for an answer, we could do worse than to consult an actual scientist. Here is how Kenneth Miller views the nature of science:
"Like any scientist, I have a built-in affection for the underdog, and like other researchers, I do not dream of conducting boring experiments that merely confirm the status quo, but of achieving new insights, radical and subversive, that would smash the orthodox and set off revolutions of thought and understanding. True scientists are not afraid of making waves" (Miller 2007, 13-14).
A view like Miller's seems to make for an uneasy fit into Fuller's narrative. If Fuller is correct -- that the best model for understanding science comes from the history of Christian reformation -- then we would have to revisit the church history in order to accommodate a far greater number of successful reformers. A view like Miller's makes the scientific establishment seem far less ossified in its positions than one could glean from Fuller's exposition.
At this point, I would like to turn to David Hume's Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion (which is the only text that is cited in the body of Fuller's book). Hume, in the voice of Philo, points out the dangers inherent in arguments from analogy:
"After having experienced the circulation of the blood in human creatures, we make no doubt, that it takes place in Titius and Maevius: But from its circulation in frogs and fishes, it is only a presumption, though a strong one, from analogy, that it takes place in men and other animals. The analogical reasoning is much weaker, when we infer the circulation of the sap in vegetables from our experience, that the blood circulates in animals; and those, who hastily followed that imperfect analogy, are found, by more accurate experiments, to have been mistaken" (Hume 2007, Part 2 §7).
There are plenty of reasons to conclude that Fuller's analogies are, on the whole, quite weak. For instance, when it comes to authority, there are some similarities between that of religious institutions (such as the Catholic Church and its entire hierarchy) and that of scientific ones (such as the National Academy of Sciences). But nowhere in Fuller's polemic is it clear how similar the two actually are -- or, more importantly, how dissimilar they are. This problem crops up, e.g., in Fuller's discussion of Francis Collins, the director of the National Institutes of Health, who identifies himself as a born-again Christian. For a view like Fuller's, Collins is a bit of an anomaly: "While Collins denies papal authority, which at least has a biblical basis in Peter's Apostolic primacy, [he] confer[s] Vatican-like authority on scientific institutions that have no biblical basis whatsoever" (p.84). Yet nowhere does Fuller make it known to the reader how exactly the scientific authorities need to rely on biblical basis.
Interspersed through the chapters are Fuller's bold visions for the brave new future of science. In Chapter 1 Fuller asserts: "I imagine that not too long from now an ambitious historian will manage to write an illuminating account of twentieth-century biology that posits Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and Gregor Mendel as the main nineteenth-century theoretical inspirations, while consigning Charles Darwin to a secondary role" (p.17). And later, in Chapter 4, Fuller asks "would biomedical research suffer irreparably [...] if we added intelligent design to neo-Darwinism as a permissible general explanatory theory?" In providing an answer to his own question, Fuller asserts that it would be "very probably not" (p.65). Yet here -- and elsewhere -- Fuller offers precious little to support these assertions, other than his power of imagination. It is as if Fuller sets up these bold goals, but he provides the reader next to no indication as to how he intends these to be reached; the goals remain elusive at the end of the horizon, but the road to these is nowhere to be found. On the whole, in these passages Fuller seemingly dispenses with the need of evidential support, and downplays its significance to the sciences. This strikes me as a worrisome approach. The attitude underlying this seems to be "if the facts don't fit your narrative, change your facts!" In contrast, the approach taken by the scientific establishment could be summed up in the words from former US Senator, Patrick Moynihan: "You are entitled to your opinions, but you are not entitled to your own facts".
In describing science as an ideology, Fuller makes no mention that science has its own methodology that other ideologies don't share. Furthermore, in Fuller's hands, scientific theories seem to have around them the air of the general term 'theory'. As someone who is trained in the history and philosophy of science, Fuller surely must know the distinction between 'theory' in ordinary discourse, and a scientific theory. Sadly, he doesn't seem to acknowledge it in the book. For the benefit of the reader, here is one way to articulate the difference:
"In everyday usage, 'theory' often refers to a hunch or a speculation. When people say, 'I have a theory about why that happened,' they are often drawing a conclusion based on fragmentary or inconclusive evidence. The formal scientific definition of theory is quite different from the everyday meaning of the word. It refers to a comprehensive explanation of some aspect of nature that is supported by a vast body of evidence" (NAS 2008, 11).
This distinction allows us to properly demarcate the two theories that prominently feature in Fuller's discussion. Theory of evolution is an example of a theory in the scientific sense, whereas Intelligent Design theory is theory only in the former sense. Furthermore, this distinction casts Fuller's assertions that scientific theories must be "nurtured" or "propped up" by the scientific establishment in curious light.
As a significant part of his argumentative strategy, Fuller invokes middle knowledge -- or, counterfactual knowledge. Although the notion is thoroughly delineated (in Chapter 7, pp.114-115 as well as in the bibliographic essay, pp.162-164), nowhere does Fuller explicate as to which of his claims are factual, and which of them are counterfactual -- and which of them are merely wishful thinking on his part. On a close inspection, it seems that in order to interpret Fuller's claims charitably, a lot of them would have to be taken as counterfactuals. Consider, for instance, the following:
"While in possession of Mendel's original papers, Darwin could not fathom why Mendel might have supposed that something as apparently mysterious as the life's generative principle could be subject to rigorous mathematical laws" (p.49).
Contrary to Fuller's interpretation, the consensus view of the Darwin-Mendel --connection has that even if Darwin had in his possession a copy of Mendel's paper, the paper was not prepared for publication. Even if Darwin had had Mendel's publication at hand, he would have thought that Mendel's work addressed a different issue (heredity) than his did (evolution). (Although there are divergent views on the Darwin-Mendel connection (for a survey, see e.g. Bizzo & El-Hani 2009), virtually none endorse the interpretation that Fuller advances here.)
As for other peculiarities about Fuller's claims, chief among them is his characterization of Darwinism as a process of pure chance. For instance, Fuller asserts that that "Darwinists attribute to chance-based processes that extend into the indefinite past" the "complex organization" of nature (p.17). Similarly, Fuller sees it "profoundly irrational" to hitch "one's fate to a theory in which all that is meaningful is ultimately based on chance-based processes" (p.146). As for the first claim, I would like to turn to a Darwinist par excellence, Charles Darwin himself. In Chapter 5 of Origin of Species, we read:
"I have hitherto sometimes spoken of as if the variations -- so common and multiform in organic beings under domestication, and in a lesser degree in those in a state of nature -- had been due to chance. This, of course, is a wholly incorrect expression, but it serves to acknowledge plainly our ignorance of the cause of each particular variation" (Darwin 2008, 101).
In short, Darwin spoke of variation of organisms being due to chance as a shorthand notion. To interpret Fuller's claim charitably, it seems that he is talking about Darwinism as a chance-based process in the shorthand sense -- which means that Fuller's criticism misses Darwin's actual view. As for Fuller's second claim, here is Darwin again -- this time in the closing paragraph of Origins of Species:
"There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the creator into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful, have been, and are being, evolved" (Darwin 2008, 360).
I daresay that other Darwinists concur with the above sentiment -- as can be easily verified, e.g., in Kenneth Miller (2008, Chapter 6, especially pp.143ff.), or in Francisco Ayala (2010, Chapter 6 passim). (Similar sentiments are expressed in the works of Richard Dawkins, Daniel Dennett, Theodosius Dobzhansky, Niles Eldredge, Darrell Falk, Donald Prothero, Michael Ruse, Roger Wiens, and many, many others – including the faculty of the Faraday Institute, at http://www.st-edmunds.cam.ac.uk/faraday/index.php. Aside from being 'Darwinists', the aforementioned individuals have very little in common with each other. Although they are all outspoken critics of creationism (and the Intelligent Design 'theory' alike), they represent various academic disciplines (from evolutionary biology to cell biology, and from paleontology to philosophy), and various religious views (from atheism to agnosticism and from Catholicism to non-denominational, born-again Christianity).) This fact should serve as a challenge -- a defeater, even -- to Fuller's claim that all Darwinists are cut of the same cloth.
As for Fuller's claim that Darwin was repelled by natural theology (p.17), here the evidence -- drawn from Darwin's Autobiography -- does not support it, either. Darwin writes:
"In order to pass the B.A. examination, it was, also, necessary to get up Paley's Evidences of Christianity, and his Moral Philosophy. This was done in a thorough manner, and I am convinced that I could have written out the whole of the Evidences with perfect correctness, but not of course in the clear language of Paley. The logic of this book and as I may add of his Natural Theology gave me as much delight as did Euclid. The careful study of these works, without attempting to learn any part by rote, was the only part of the Academical Course which, as I then felt and as I still believe, was of the least use to me in the education of my mind. I did not at that time trouble myself about Paley's premises; and taking these on trust I was charmed and convinced by the long line of argumentation" (Darwin 1958, 59; emphasis added).
As the historical record shows, Darwin ultimately came to reject Paley's premises, along with the notion that the apparent design of the world unequivocally demands a designer. Throughout his career, culminating with the Origin of Species, Darwin came to formulate a formidable challenge to Paley's premises, which the latter could not withstand. But to say that Darwin was repelled by natural theology seems curious at its best, and mendacious at its worst.
One fundamental problem for Fuller's bold vision involving Protscience can be seen in the following passages. First, "...the public harbours enough scientific literacy to pick and mix from what the scientific establishment would rather have them accept or reject as a package deal. Welcome to the world of Protscience!" (p.78) And elsewhere, much to the same effect, we read that "there is no reason to think that rejecting a grand explanatory theory nurtured by the scientific establishment, such as neo-Darwinism, entails rejecting any of the technical aspects of science that serve us so well" (p.66). These two passages seem to sum up Fuller's main idea about Protscience: if you cannot reconcile scientific theories with your personal worldview, just take what you like, and scuttle the rest. Such intellectual scavenging may serve to put an end to the conflict between science and one's worldview. But what if we try to apply the model of Protscience to any of the discoveries that have revolutionized the sciences? No matter which one we pick as an example, we see that Protscience offers a poor fit. The scientists who made the discoveries did not just scavenge the extant body of scientific knowledge, selecting only those parts that were useful to their work; instead of changing the rules of the game, they worked within the system. By Fuller's lights, what matters in living scientifically has next to nothing to do with what scientists actually do -- for him, it is a matter of subscribing to an ideology, and calling it scientific. At its worst, living scientifically amounts to bowdlerizing scientific theories to make them fit one's ideology. (Lest this sounds too harsh, Fuller himself seems welcoming to this approach; see above (p.66). ) By Fuller's lights, scientific theories are just nurtured (or, propped up) by the scientific establishment -- for whatever purpose -- and they could just as easily be stripped for parts for more worthy ideologies, among which Fuller seemingly counts the Intelligent Design 'theory'.
To remain with Protscience slightly longer, in Chapter 4 Fuller asserts that just as the protestant reformation moved the authority (regarding salvation) from the establishment (of the church) to the individual, science is undergoing similar process. Just as protestants were not atheists (by their own lights), neither are protscientists anti-science (by their own lights).
However, this line of argumentation raises far more questions than it answers. If the history of science is to be interpreted through the lens of the history of Christianity (especially from the reformation onwards), what would be the outcome? The Catholic Church still remains the largest of all Christian denominations, some five centuries after the reformation. Nowhere does Fuller make it explicit if the 'Protscience' reformation he envisions for the sciences is supposed to follow the same path. Would the scientific establishment remain as the largest body of scientists, united under the banner of the orthodoxy that Fuller challenges? Would the protscientists have their own, comparable establishments? Furthermore, what of Christian ecumenism? None of these issues are discussed -- or even brought up -- by Fuller.
Having dwelled on the details of Fuller's proposal, what of book as a whole? Granted, Fuller's is an undoubtedly bold vision, and he offers some keen insights. However, these tend to get lost in the clutter, as the support he provides for his claims falls abysmally short of the goal. To a philosopher, many of Fuller's arguments are uncogent or underdeveloped; many others a amount to mere unsupported assertions. To someone with a working knowledge of the history of science, Fuller's revisionary telling of the history of science is jarring -- given especially the fact that he nowhere acknowledges which of his historical claims are factual, which are counterfactual, and which are his own revisionary interpretations. Put briefly, the historical record just does not support Fuller's assertions when it comes to many of key claims. Now, in criticizing Fuller's conclusion (that the connection between science and Christianity is as close as he alleges), I do not intend to deny that there are interesting -- and significant -- similarities between science and religion, and between science and Christianity in particular. After all, questions of cosmogony ("Where did we come from?"), eschatology ("Where will we end up?"), and the human condition ("What is our nature?") are crucially important to Christianity. As such, it should be no surprise that these remain important to sciences that originate in that ideological foundation. My point here is merely that the connection between the sciences and its Christian origins is nowhere near as intimate as Fuller alleges it to be -- at least, not in light of the support he manages to provide.
All in all, I find myself inclined to sum up Fuller's book in just one phrase: it is a baffling doctrine bafflingly presented. (I borrow this phrase from David Pears' characterization of Ludwig Wittgenstein's picture theory of language (Pears 1987, 143).) In my mind, this aptly captures Fuller's overall project, for several reasons. First, the grandiose vision that Fuller offers is in dire need of far more support than Fuller manages to muster. Second, despite not being a scientist myself, I have genuine difficulties in thinking of just one who would either agree with Fuller's indictments, or share in his vision of what the sciences should be. Third, Fuller's project for the bold new vision for the sciences seems utterly superfluous: science already has a method in place for accommodating -- and accepting -- revolutionary ideas and hypotheses. Each of the revolutionary ideas has to run a gauntlet of criticism and scrutiny -- the same gauntlet as all other successful scientific hypotheses have. If some ideas -- such as Fuller's seeming preference, the Intelligent Design 'theory' -- fail to do this, it may be more revealing about the shortcomings of those ideas, rather than of any inherent bias in the scientific approach.
Ayala, Francisco. 2010. Am I A Monkey? Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Bizzo, Nelio, and Charbel El-Hani. 2009. "Darwin and Mendel: Evolution and genetics," in Journal of Biological Education 43, no.3: 108-114.
Darwin, Charles. 1958. The Autobiography of Charles Darwin, ed. Nora Barlow. London: Collins. Retrieved on 20 July 2011 from http://darwin-online.org.uk/pdf/1958_autobiography_F1497.pdf
Darwin, Charles. 2008 (1860). On the Origin of Species, 2nd. ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
Fuller, Steve. 2007. Science vs. Religion? Intelligent Design and the Problem of Evolution. Malden, MA: Polity.
Hume, David. 2007 (1779). Dialogues concerning Natural Religion. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Kitzmiller v. Dover. 2005. 400 F. Supp. 2d 707 (M.D. Pa.). Retrieved on 14 July 2011 from http://www.pamd.uscourts.gov/kitzmiller/kitzmiller_342.pdf
Miller, Kenneth. 2008. Only a Theory: Evolution and the Battle for America's Soul. New York: Penguin.
National Academy of Sciences. 2008. Science, Evolution, and Creationism. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.
Pears, David. 1987. The False Prison, v.1. New York: Oxford University Press.
© 2011 Tuomas Manninen
Tuomas Manninen is a Lecturer in Philosophy at the Arizona State University at the West Campus, where he regularly teaches the course "Science and Religion," (among his other courses). He wrote his Ph.D. dissertation on the metaphysics of personhood at the University of Iowa in 2007.