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A Theory of Feelings Anger and Forgiveness Philosophizing Madness from Nietzsche to Derrida"My Madness Saved Me"10 Good Questions about Life and Death12 Modern Philosophers50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a GodA Cabinet of Philosophical CuriositiesA Case for IronyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to Buddhist PhilosophyA Companion to FoucaultA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to HumeA Companion to KantA Companion to Phenomenology and ExistentialismA Companion to PragmatismA Companion to the Philosophy of ActionA Companion to the Philosophy of BiologyA Companion to the Philosophy of LiteratureA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Critical Overview of Biological FunctionsA Critique of Naturalistic Philosophies of MindA Cursing Brain?A Delicate BalanceA Farewell to AlmsA Fragile LifeA Frightening LoveA Future for PresentismA Guide to the Good LifeA History of PsychiatryA History of the MindA Life Worth LivingA Manual of Experimental PhilosophyA Map of the MindA Metaphysics of PsychopathologyA Mind So RareA Minimal LibertarianismA Natural History of Human MoralityA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Natural History of VisionA Parliament of MindsA Philosopher Looks at The Sense of HumorA Philosophical DiseaseA Philosophy for the Science of Well-BeingA Philosophy of BoredomA Philosophy of Cinematic ArtA Philosophy of CultureA Philosophy of EmptinessA Philosophy of FearA Philosophy of PainA Physicalist ManifestoA Place for ConsciousnessA Question of TrustA Research Agenda for DSM-VA Revolution of the MindA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Stroll With William JamesA Tapestry of ValuesA Tear is an Intellectual ThingA Theory of FreedomA Thousand MachinesA Universe of ConsciousnessA Very Bad WizardA Very Bad Wizard: Morality Behind the CurtainA Virtue EpistemologyA World Full of GodsA World Without ValuesAbout FaceAbout the Beginning of the Hermeneutics of the SelfAction and ResponsibilityAction in ContextAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionAction, Contemplation, and HappinessAction, Emotion and WillAdam SmithAdaptive DynamicsAddictionAddictionAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction and Self-ControlAddiction Is a ChoiceAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAftermathAfterwarAgainst AdaptationAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HappinessAgainst HealthAgainst MarriageAgency and ActionAgency and AnswerabilityAgency and EmbodimentAgency and ResponsibilityAgency, Freedom, and Moral ResponsibilityAl-JununAlain BadiouAlain BadiouAlasdair MacIntyreAlien Landscapes?Altered EgosAmbivalenceAn Anthology of Psychiatric EthicsAn Ethics for TodayAn Intellectual History of CannibalismAn Interpretation of DesireAn Introduction to EthicsAn Introduction to Kant's Moral Philosophy An Introduction to Philosophy of EducationAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of PsychologyAn Introductory Philosophy of MedicineAn Odd Kind of FameAnalytic FreudAnalytic Philosophy in AmericaAncient AngerAncient Models of MindAncient Philosophy of the SelfAngerAnimal LessonsAnimal MindsAnimals Like UsAnnihilationAnother PlanetAnswers for AristotleAnti-ExternalismAnti-Individualism and KnowledgeAntigone’s ClaimAntipsychiatryAre We Hardwired?Are Women Human?Arguing about DisabilityArguing About Human NatureAristotle and the Philosophy of FriendshipAristotle on Practical WisdomAristotle's ChildrenAristotle's Ethics and Moral ResponsibilityAristotle, Emotions, and EducationArt & MoralityArt After Conceptual ArtArt in Three DimensionsArt, Self and KnowledgeArtificial ConsciousnessArtificial HappinessAspects of PsychologismAsylum to ActionAt the Existentialist CaféAtonement and ForgivenessAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutobiography as PhilosophyAutonomyAutonomy and Mental DisorderAutonomy and the Challenges to LiberalismBabies by DesignBackslidingBadiouBadiou's DeleuzeBadiou, Balibar, Ranciere: Rethinking EmancipationBare Facts And Naked TruthsBasic Desert, Reactive Attitudes and Free WillBattlestar Galactica and PhilosophyBe Like the FoxBeautyBecoming a SubjectBecoming HumanBefore ConsciousnessBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing AmoralBeing HumanBeing Mentally Ill: A Sociological Theory Being No OneBeing Realistic about ReasonsBeing ReducedBeing YourselfBelief's Own EthicsBending Over BackwardsBerlin Childhood around 1900Bernard WilliamsBertrand RussellBest ExplanationsBetter than BothBetter Than WellBetween Two WorldsBeyond HealthBeyond Hegel and NietzscheBeyond KuhnBeyond LossBeyond MelancholyBeyond Moral JudgmentBeyond PostmodernismBeyond ReductionBeyond SchizophreniaBeyond the DSM StoryBioethicsBioethics and the BrainBioethics in the ClinicBiological Complexity and Integrative PluralismBiology Is TechnologyBiosBipolar ExpeditionsBlackwell Companion to the Philosophy of EducationBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlues - Philosophy for EveryoneBlushBob Dylan and PhilosophyBody ConsciousnessBody Image And Body SchemaBody ImagesBody LanguageBody MattersBody WorkBody-Subjects and Disordered MindsBoundBoundaries of the MindBoyleBrain Evolution and CognitionBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-WiseBrainchildrenBrains, Buddhas, and BelievingBrainstormingBrave New WorldsBreakdown of WillBrief Child Therapy Homework PlannerBrief Inquiry into the Meaning of Sin and FaithBrief Therapy Homework PlannerBritain on the CouchBritish Idealism and the Concept of the SelfBrute RationalityBuffy the Vampire Slayer and PhilosophyBut Is It Art?Camus and SartreCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCarving Nature at Its JointsCase Studies in Biomedical Research EthicsCassandra's DaughterCato's TearsCausation and CounterfactualsCauses, Laws, and Free WillChanging Conceptions of the Child from the Renaissance to Post-ModernityChanging the SubjectChaosophyCharacter and Moral Psychology Character as Moral FictionCharles DarwinCherishmentChildhood and the Philosophy of EducationChildrenChildren, Families, and Health Care Decision MakingChoices and ConflictChoosing Not to ChooseChristmas - Philosophy for EveryoneCinema, Philosophy, BergmanCinematic MythmakingCity and Soul in Plato's RepublicClassifying MadnessClear and Queer ThinkingClinical EthicsClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyCodependent ForevermoreCoffee - Philosophy for EveryoneCognition and the BrainCognition of Value in Aristotle's EthicsCognition Through Understanding: Self-Knowledge, Interlocution, Reasoning, ReflectionCognitive BiologyCognitive FictionsCognitive Neuroscience of EmotionCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Systems and the Extended Mind Cognitive Theories of Mental IllnessCoherence in Thought and ActionCollected Papers, Volume 1Collected Papers, Volume 2College SexComedy IncarnateCommitmentCommunicative Action and Rational ChoiceCompassionate Moral RealismCompetence, Condemnation, and CommitmentConcealment And ExposureConcepts and Causes in the Philosophy of DiseaseConceptual Analysis and Philosophical NaturalismConceptual Art and PaintingConceptual Issues in Evolutionary BiologyConfessionsConfucianismConnected, or What It Means to Live in the Network SocietyConquest of AbundanceConscience and ConvenienceConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Fundamental RealityConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the SelfConsciousness EmergingConsciousness EvolvingConsciousness ExplainedConsciousness in ActionConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Color, and ContentConsole and ClassifyConstructing the WorldConstructive AnalysisContemporary Debates In Applied EthicsContemporary Debates in Moral TheoryContemporary Debates in Philosophy of BiologyContemporary Debates in Philosophy of MindContemporary Debates in Political PhilosophyContemporary Debates in Social PhilosophyContemporary Perspectives on Natural LawContested Knowledge: Social Theory TodayContesting PsychiatryContext and the AttitudesContinental Philosophy of ScienceControlControlling Our DestiniesConversations About Psychology and Sexual OrientationCopernicus, Darwin and FreudCrazy for YouCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCreating ConsilienceCreating HysteriaCreating Mental IllnessCreating Scientific ConceptsCreating the American JunkieCreation, Rationality and AutonomyCreatures Like Us?Crime and CulpabilityCrime, Punishment, and Mental IllnessCrimes of ReasonCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychiatryCritical PsychologyCritical ResistanceCritical Thinking About PsychologyCritical VisionsCross and KhoraCruel CompassionCTRL [SPACE]Cultural Psychology of the SelfCultural Theory: An IntroductionCulture and Psychiatric DiagnosisCulture and Subjective Well-BeingCulture of DeathCultures of NeurastheniaCurious EmotionsCurrent Controversies in Experimental PhilosophyCurrent Controversies in Values and ScienceCustom and Reason in HumeCustomers and Patrons of the Mad-TradeCutting God in Half - And Putting the Pieces Together AgainCylons in AmericaDamaged IdentitiesDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous EmotionsDaniel DennettDaniel DennettDark AgesDarwin and DesignDarwin's Dangerous IdeaDarwin's LegacyDarwin, God and the Meaning of LifeDarwinian PsychiatryDarwinian ReductionismDarwinizing CultureDating: Philosophy for EveryoneDeathDeathDeath and CharacterDeath and CompassionDeath and the AfterlifeDebating DesignDebating HumanismDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecomposing the WillDeconstructing PsychotherapyDeconstruction and DemocracyDeeper Than DarwinDeeper than ReasonDefending Science - within ReasonDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDegrees of BeliefDeleuze and the Concepts of CinemaDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions and Other Irrational BeliefsDelusions and the Madness of the MassesDementiaDemons, Dreamers, and MadmenDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDennett’s PhilosophyDepression Is a ChoiceDepression, Emotion and the SelfDepthDerrida, Deleuze, PsychoanalysisDescartesDescartes and the Passionate MindDescartes' CogitoDescartes's Changing MindDescartes's Concept of MindDescribing Inner Experience?Descriptions and PrescriptionsDesembodied Spirits and Deanimated Bodies Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Desire and AffectDesire, Love, and IdentityDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDeveloping the VirtuesDiagnosing the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersDialectics of the SelfDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital SoulDimensional Models of Personality DisordersDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDisjunctivismDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDispatches from the Freud WarsDisrupted LivesDistractionDisturbed ConsciousnessDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Do We Still Need Doctors?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Does the Woman Exist?Doing without ConceptsDon't be FooledDon't Believe Everything You ThinkDonald DavidsonDonald Davidson on Truth, Meaning, and the MentalDoubting Darwin?Down GirlDreaming and Other Involuntary MentationDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV-TR CasebookDworkin and His CriticsDying to KnowDynamics in ActionDysthymia and the Spectrum of Chronic DepressionsEccentricsEducational MetamorphosesEffective IntentionsElbow Room: The Varieties of Free Will Worth WantingEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbodied RhetoricsEmbodied Selves and Divided MindsEmbryos under the MicroscopeEmergencies in Mental Health PracticeEmerging Conceptual, Ethical and Policy Issues in BionanotechnologyEmotionEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion and PsycheEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotional ReasonEmotional ReasonEmotional TruthEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions, Value, and AgencyEmpathyEmpathy and AgencyEmpathy and Moral DevelopmentEmpathy and MoralityEmpathy in the Context of PhilosophyEmpirical Ethics in PsychiatryEnactivist InterventionsEnchanted LoomsEngaging BuddhismEngineering the Human GermlineEnjoymentEnvyEpicureanismEpistemic LuckEpistemologyEpistemology and EmotionsEpistemology and the Psychology of Human JudgmentEros and the GoodErotic MoralityEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssays in the Metaphysics of Mind Essays on Derek Parfit's On What MattersEssays on Free Will and Moral ResponsibilityEssays on Nonconceptual ContentEssays on Philosophical CounselingEssays on Reference, Language, and MindEssays on the Concept of Mind in Early-Modern PhilosophyEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEsssential Philosophy of PsychiatryEternal Sunshine of the Spotless MindEthical Conflicts in PsychologyEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthical Issues in Human CloningEthical TheoryEthicsEthicsEthics and the A PrioriEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics and Values in PsychotherapyEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics in Plain EnglishEthics in PracticeEthics in Psychiatric ResearchEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEuropean Review of Philosophy. Vol. 5Everyday IrrationalityEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolutionEvolution and the Human MindEvolution's RainbowEvolutionary Origins of MoralityEvolutionary PsychologyExamined LifeExamined LivesExistential AmericaExistentialismExistentialism and Romantic LoveExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental Philosophy, Rationalism, and NaturalismExperiments in EthicsExplaining ConsciousnessExplaining the BrainExplaining the Computational MindExplanatory PluralismExploding the Gene MythExploring HappinessExploring the SelfExpression and the InnerExpressions of JudgmentExtraordinary Science and PsychiatryFaces of IntentionFact and ValueFact and Value in EmotionFacts and ValuesFacts, Values, and NormsFads and Fallacies in the Social SciencesFaith and Wisdom in ScienceFatherhoodFear of KnowledgeFearless SpeechFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFeelings of BeingFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminism and Philosophy of ScienceFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist Interpretations of Rene DescartesFeminist TheoryField Notes from ElsewhereFinding Consciousness in the BrainFingerprints of GodFlesh in the Age of ReasonFolk Psychological NarrativesFolk Psychology Re-AssessedForces of HabitForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and RetributionFoucault 2.0Foucault and PhilosophyFoucault NowFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Ethical Practice, Research, and Teaching in PsychologyFour Views on Free WillFrank Ramsey (1903-1930)Free WillFree WillFree WillFree WillFree Will and Action ExplanationFree Will and LuckFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree: Why Science Hasn't Disproved Free WillFreedomFreedom and DeterminismFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom and ResponsibiltyFreedom and ValueFreedom EvolvesFreedom RegainedFreedom vs. InterventionFreedom, Fame, Lying, and BetrayalFreudFreud and the Question of PseudoscienceFreud As PhilosopherFreud's AnswerFreud, the Reluctant PhilosopherFriedrich NietzscheFrom Chance to ChoiceFrom Clinic to ClassroomFrom Complexity to LifeFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Knowledge to Wisdom: A Revolution for Science and the HumanitiesFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrom Valuing to ValueFrontiers of ConsciousnessFrontiers of JusticeFurnishing the MindGalileo in PittsburghGenderGender and Mental HealthGender in the MirrorGender TroubleGenesGenes, Women, EqualityGenetic Nature/CultureGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetic SecretsGenocide's AftermathGenomes and What to Make of ThemGerman Idealism and the JewGerman PhilosophyGetting HookedGilles DeleuzeGlobal PhilosophyGluttonyGod and Phenomenal ConsciousnessGoffman's LegacyGoing Amiss in Experimental ResearchGoodness & AdviceGrassroots SpiritualityGrave MattersGrave MattersGreedGreek Models of Mind and SelfGut ReactionsHabilitation, Health, and AgencyHabits of MindHallucinationHandbook of BioethicsHandbook of EmotionsHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness and EducationHappiness and the Good LifeHappiness Is OverratedHappiness, Death, and the Remainder of LifeHard LuckHarmful ThoughtsHaving the World in ViewHealing PsychiatryHealing the Soul in the Age of the BrainHealth, Illness and DiseaseHealth, Science, and Ordinary LanguageHegelHeidegger and a Metaphysics of FeelingHeidegger, Metaphysics and the Univocity of BeingHermann von Helmholtz's MechanismHermeneutics As PoliticsHeterophobiaHeterosyncraciesHeuristics and BiasesHeuristics and the LawHidden ResourcesHidden SelvesHiding from HumanityHigh Art LiteHistorical OntologyHistory of Psychiatry and Medical PsychologyHistory, Historicity And ScienceHobbesHomosexualitiesHope and Dread in PsychoanalysisHot ThoughtHow Can I Be Trusted?How Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Children Learn the Meanings of WordsHow Could Conscious Experiences Affect Brains?How Do We Know Who We Are?How Emotions WorkHow Emotions WorkHow History Made the MindHow Images ThinkHow is Nature Possible?How Propaganda WorksHow Science WorksHow Scientific Practices MatterHow Scientists Explain DiseaseHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Be a StoicHow to Make Opportunity EqualHow to Solve the Mind-Body Problemhow to stop timeHow to Think More About SexHow We HopeHow We ReasonHuman CloningHuman Development, Language and the Future of MankindHuman EnhancementHuman Evolution, Reproduction, and MoralityHuman GoodnessHuman Identity and BioethicsHuman NatureHuman NatureHuman Nature and the Limits of ScienceHuman-Built WorldHumanismHumanism, What's That?HumanityHumans, Animals, MachinesHumeHumeHume on Motivation and VirtueHume's True ScepticismHume’s Moral Philosophy and Contemporary PsychologyHusserlHystoriesI of the VortexI Was WrongIdeas that MatterIdentifying the MindIdentity and Agency in Cultural WorldsIgnorance and ImaginationIllnessImagination and Its PathologiesImagination and the Meaningful BrainImagining NumbersImmortal RemainsImproving Nature?In Defense of an Evolutionary Concept of HealthIn Defense of SentimentalityIn Love With LifeIn Praise of Athletic BeautyIn Praise of DesireIn Praise of Natural PhilosophyIn Praise of the WhipIn Pursuit of HappinessIn Search of HappinessIn the Name of GodIn the Name of IdentityIn the Space of ReasonsIn the SwarmIn Two MindsInclusive EthicsIncompatibilism's AllureIndividual Differences in Conscious ExperienceInfinity and PerspectiveInformation ArtsInformed Consent in Medical ResearchIngmar Bergman, Cinematic PhilosopherInhuman ThoughtsInner PresenceInsanityIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntelligent VirtueIntentionIntentionality, Deliberation and AutonomyIntentions and IntentionalityIntentions and IntentionalityInterpreting MindsInterpreting NietzscheIntroducing Greek PhilosophyIntrospection and ConsciousnessIntrospection VindicatedIntuition, Imagination, and Philosophical MethodologyIntuitionismInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIrrationalityIs Academic Feminism Dead?Is It Me or My Meds?Is Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Is Oedipus Online?Is Science Neurotic?Is Science Value Free?Is the Visual World a Grand Illusion?Is There a Duty to Die?Issues in Philosophical CounselingJacques LacanJacques RancièreJacques RanciereJean-Paul SartreJohn McDowellJohn SearleJohn Searle's Ideas About Social RealityJohn Stuart MillJohn Stuart Mill and the Writing of CharacterJoint AttentionJokesJonathan EdwardsJudging and UnderstandingJustice for ChildrenJustice in RobesJustice, Luck, and KnowledgeKantKant and MiltonKant and the Fate of AutonomyKant and the Limits of AutonomyKant and the Role of Pleasure in Moral ActionKant on Freedom, Law, and HappinessKant on Moral AutonomyKant's Anatomy of EvilKant's Anatomy of the Intelligent MindKant's Theory of VirtueKarl JaspersKarl PopperKarl Popper, Science and EnlightenmentKey Concepts in PhilosophyKierkegaardKierkegaard as PhenomenologistKierkegaard's Concept of DespairKierkegaard's MuseKinds of MindsKinds, Things, and StuffKnowing, Knowledge and BeliefsKnowledge MonopoliesKnowledge, Belief, and CharacterKnowledge, Possibility, and ConsciousnessLacanLack of CharacterLack of CharacterLanguageLanguage in ContextLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Culture, and MindLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw and the BrainLaw, Liberty, and PsychiatryLaws, Mind, and Free WillLeaving YouLectures on the History of Political PhilosophyLevelling the Playing FieldLiberal Education in a Knowledge SocietyLiberatory PsychiatryLife and ActionLife at the Texas State Lunatic Asylum, 1857-1997Life Is Not a Game of PerfectLife of the MindLife's FormLife, Death, & MeaningLife, Death, and Meaning: Key Philosophical Readings on the Big Questions Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of UtilityLife, Sex, and IdeasLight in the Dark RoomLike a Splinter in Your MindLiving and Dying WellLiving NarrativeLiving Outside Mental IllnessLiving with DarwinLiving With One’s PastLockeLocke LockeLogic and the Art of Memory Loneliness in Philosophy, Psychology, and LiteratureLooking for SpinozaLooking for The StrangerLost in DialogueLost SoulsLOT 2LoveLoveLove's ConfusionsLove's VisionLove, Friendship, and the SelfLove, Sex & TragedyLuckyLudwig WittgensteinLustLyingMachine ConsciousnessMad for FoucaultMad TravelersMade with WordsMadness And Death In PhilosophyMadness and DemocracyMadness at HomeMadness Is CivilizationMaking Natural KnowledgeMaking Sense of EvolutionMaking Sense of Freedom and ResponsibilityMaking the DSM-5Making the Social WorldMaking TruthMale Female EmailMan, Beast, and ZombieMandated Reporting of Suspected Child AbuseManiaManic Depression and CreativityMapping the Edges and the In-betweenMapping the Future of BiologyMarcus AureliusMaster PassionsMatters of the MindMe++Meaning and Moral OrderMeaning and Value in a Secular AgeMeaning in LifeMeaning in Life and Why It MattersMeaning, Basic Self-Knowledge, and MindMeanings of ArtMeasuring HappinessMeasuring PsychopathologyMedia MadnessMedical Enhancement and PosthumanityMedical NihilismMedicine and Philosophy in Classical AntiquityMedicine of the PersonMedicine, Mental Health, Religion, Science and Well-BeingMeditations on Self-Discipline and FailureMelancholy And the Care of the SoulMelancholy and the Otherness of GodMementoMemory and NarrativeMental ActionsMental CausationMental Causation and OntologyMental HealthMental Health At The CrossroadsMental Health Policy in BritainMerit, Meaning, and Human BondageMerleau-PontyMerleau-Ponty and the Possibilities of PhilosophyMetacognition and Theory of MindMetacreationMetaethical SubjectivismMetaethicsMetal and FleshMetaphors of MemoryMetapoliticsMethods in MindMichel FoucaultMidlifeMill's UtilitarianismMindMindMindMind and ConsciousnessMind and CosmosMind and MechanismMind GamesMind in a Physical WorldMind in Everyday Life and Cognitive ScienceMind in LifeMind the BodyMind TimeMind's LandscapeMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMind, Brain, and Free WillMind, Reason and ImaginationMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds and PersonsMinds, Brains, and LawMinds, Ethics, and ConditionalsMindshapingMindsightMindworldsMirror, MirrorMixed FeelingsMockingbird YearsModels of the SelfModern Social ImaginariesModern Theories of JusticeModernity and SubjectivityModernity and TechnologyMoody Minds DistemperedMoral BrainsMoral DimensionsMoral FailureMoral ImaginationMoral LiteracyMoral MachinesMoral ParticularismMoral PsychologyMoral Psychology and Human AgencyMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Moral Psychology: Volume IVMoral RepairMoral Responsibility and Alternative PossibilitiesMoral TribesMoral Value and Human DiversityMorality and Self-InterestMorality in a Natural WorldMorality, Moral Luck and ResponsibilityMotherhoodMotive and RightnessMoving Beyond Prozac, DSM, and the New PsychiatryMultiple Analogies in Science and PhilosophyMultiple Identities & False MemoriesMusic, Madness, and the Unworking of LanguageMy Brain Made Me Do ItMy Double UnveiledMy WayNarrativeNarrative and IdentityNarrative MedicineNarrative PsychiatryNarrative Theory and the Cognitive SciencesNatural Ethical FactsNatural Kinds and Conceptual ChangeNatural MindsNatural-Born CybogsNaturalism and the First-Person PerspectiveNaturalism and the Human ConditionNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalized BioethicsNaturalizing the MindNatureNature and NarrativeNear Death ExperienceNeither Bad nor MadNeither Victim nor SurvivorNeuro-Philosophy and the Healthy MindNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNeuroexistentialismNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neurophilosophy at WorkNeurophilosophy of Free WillNeuropoliticsNeuropsychoanalysis in PracticeNeuroscience and PhilosophyNew Essays on the Explanation of ActionNew Philosophy for a New MediaNew Versions of VictimsNew Waves in Philosophy of ActionNietzscheNietzsche and Buddhist PhilosophyNietzsche on Ethics and PoliticsNietzsche's TherapyNietzsche, Culture and EducationNietzsche: The Man and His PhilosophyNihil UnboundNoir AnxietyNormative EthicsNormativityNorms of NatureNotebooks 1951-1959Notes Toward a Performative Theory of AssemblyNothing So AbsurdOblivionOn AnxietyOn ApologyOn Being AuthenticOn Being AuthenticOn BeliefOn BetrayalOn BullshitOn DelusionOn DesireOn EmotionsOn HashishOn Human NatureOn Human RightsOn Loving Our EnemiesOn Nature and LanguageOn PersonalityOn ReflectionOn Romantic LoveOn the EmotionsOn the Freud WatchOn the Government of the LivingOn the Human ConditionOn the InternetOn the Meaning of LifeOn the Philosophy of LawOn the Pragmatics of CommunicationOn the Punitive SocietyOn TruthOn Virtue EthicsOn What MattersOn What We Owe to Each OtherOne Hundred DaysOnflowOnly a Promise of HappinessOntology of ConsciousnessOpen MindedOpen Your EyesOrgans without BodiesOther MindsOur Last Great IllusionOur Own MindsOur Posthuman FutureOur StoriesOut of Its MindOut of Our HeadsOxford Guide to the MindOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Studies in Normative EthicsOxford Studies in Normative Ethics, Volume 7Oxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPanic DisorderPanpsychismPanpsychism in the WestPartialityPassionate EnginesPassionate EnginesPathologies of BeliefPathologies of ReasonPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perceiving the WorldPerception & CognitionPerception and Basic BeliefsPerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPerceptual ExperiencePerfecting VirtuePerplexities of ConsciousnessPersistencePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal IdentityPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonal Identity and Fractured SelvesPersonhood and Health CarePersonsPersons and BodiesPersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPersons, Souls and DeathPerspectives on ImitationPerspectives on PragmatismPessimismPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenal ConsciousnessPhenomenal IntentionalityPhenomenology and ExistentialismPhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhenomenology of IllnessPhilosophersPhilosophers on MusicPhilosophers without GodsPhilosophical CounselingPhilosophical Counselling and the UnconsciousPhilosophical DevicesPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical History and the Problem of ConsciousnessPhilosophical Issues in PharmaceuticsPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in Psychiatry IIPhilosophical MethodologyPhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophical Myths of the FallPhilosophical Perspectives on DepictionPhilosophical Perspectives on Technology and PsychiatryPhilosophical PracticePhilosophical Reflections on DisabilityPhilosophizing About Sex Philosophizing the EverydayPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy and LivingPhilosophy and PsychiatryPhilosophy and PsychotherapyPhilosophy and Science FictionPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the Interpretation of Pop CulturePhilosophy and the Moving ImagePhilosophy and the NeurosciencesPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy As FictionPhilosophy BitesPhilosophy Bites BackPhilosophy for Counselling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy for LifePhilosophy in a New CenturyPhilosophy in an Age of SciencePhilosophy in Children's LiteraturePhilosophy in the Roman EmpirePhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BodyPhilosophy of Film and Motion PicturesPhilosophy of LovePhilosophy of Love, Sex, and MarriagePhilosophy of Love, Sex, and Marriage: An IntroductionPhilosophy of MedicinePhilosophy of MindPhilosophy of Mind and CognitionPhilosophy of Personal Identity and Multiple PersonalityPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy of Public HealthPhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhilosophy of the Social SciencesPhilosophy on TapPhilosophy PracticePhilosophy the Day after TomorrowPhilosophy Within Its Proper BoundsPhilosophy's Role in Counseling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhilosophy, Politics, DemocracyPhotography and PhilosophyPhysical RealizationPhysicalism and Its DiscontentsPhysicalism and Mental CausationPhysicalism, or Something Near EnoughPhysician-Assisted DyingPillar of SaltPin-up GrrrlsPlant MindsPlatoPlatoPlato, Not Prozac!Platonic Ethics, Old and NewPleasurePluralistic CasuistryPolarities of ExperiencesPolitical EmotionsPopper, Objectivity and the Growth of KnowledgePornPorn StudiesPornography, Sex, and FeminismPortrait of the Psychiatrist as a Young ManPositive NihilismPostcolonial DisordersPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPower and the SelfPower SplitPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical ConflictsPractical Identity and Narrative AgencyPractical PhilosophyPractical RulesPractical Tortoise RaisingPractically ProfoundPracticing Feminist Ethics in PsychologyPragmatic BioethicsPragmatismPragmatism, Old And NewPraise and BlamePredicative MindsPreferences and Well-BeingPrescriptions for the MindPresocraticsPrimary and Secondary QualitiesPrimates and PhilosophersPrimitive ColorsPrivacyPrivileged AccessProblems in MindProblems of RationalityProzac As a Way of LifeProzac BacklashProzac on the CouchPsyche and EthosPsyche and SomaPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric Cultures ComparedPsychiatric Diagnosis and ClassificationPsychiatric EthicsPsychiatric HegemonyPsychiatric PowerPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry and Philosophy of SciencePsychiatry and ReligionPsychiatry as a Human SciencePsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry in SocietyPsychiatry in the New MilleniumPsychiatry in the Scientific ImagePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsycho-Physical Dualism TodayPsychoanalysis and Narrative MedicinePsychoanalysis and the Philosophy of SciencePsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychology and PhilosophyPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology, Psychotherapy, Psychoanalysis, and the Politics of Human RelationshipsPsychotherapy and ConfidentialityPsychotherapy As PraxisPublic PhilosophyPunishmentPure ImmanencePurple HazePursuing MeaningQuality of Life and Human DifferenceQueer PhilosophyQuestions for FreudQuestions for FreudQuine and Davidson on Language, Thought and RealityRaceRace in Contemporary MedicineRadiant CoolRadical AlterityRadical ExternalismRadical HopeRational and Social AgencyRational CausationRational Choice in an Uncertain WorldRationality + Consciousness = Free WillRationality and FreedomRationality and the Reflective MindRationality in ActionRawls, Dewey, and ConstructivismRe-creating MedicineRe-EmergenceRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReading AutobiographyReading Bernard WilliamsReading SartreReadings in the Philosophy of TechnologyReal MaterialismReal Natures and Familiar ObjectsReal ScienceRealism in ActionReason & EmancipationReason in ActionReason in PhilosophyReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReasoning About Rational AgentsReasoning in Biological DiscoveriesReasons from WithinReasons without RationalismReclaiming CognitionReclaiming the SoulReconceiving SchizophreniaReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecreative MindsRediscovering EmotionRediscovering EmpathyReference and ExistenceReference and the Rational MindReflections on Ethics and ResponsibilityReflections On How We LiveReframing Disease ContextuallyRefusing CareRegulating SexReinventing the SoulRelativism and Human RightsRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyReliable 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Sigmund Freud's Project for a Scientific Psychology (1895) is regarded as having initiated nowadays quest for integrating psyche and brain. Neuropsychoanalysis aims to link psychodynamic concepts and neuroscientific mechanisms. While its proponents focus on psychodynamic concepts (the unconscious, the ego, the self etc.) in its relation to specific psychological (cognitive, affective) functions ('function-based-approach'), which then are specified as being localizable in specific brain areas ('localization-based approach), it is widely known that Freud had his doubts about successfully linking neuronal mechanisms to psychodynamic concepts for a lack of sufficient scientific knowledge of the brain. Accordingly, he focused exclusively on psychological functions, albeit in terms of a structure-based approach, which is, as Northoff's book reveals, of high value for recent neuropsychoanalysis. In contrast to those who predict a decline of neuropsychoanalysis, Northoff's book gives evidence that the neuropsychoanalytic project, still being in its disciplinary infancy, is not a mere completion, but an extension of Freud's research in aiming to establish a scientifically based psychology of the human mind that is devoted to overcome the deficits of knowledge.
Northoff's book is thematically divided into four parts by four respective basic hypotheses, which are further explained in twelve comprehensive subsections. The chapters are preceded by a foreword by Mark Solms and Jaak Panksepp and an introduction to the quest of neuropsychoanalysis, while an appendix and epilogue address further transdisciplinary issues. Northoff stringently develops his hypotheses, while the reader gets "well-equipped" and benefits from the book's transparent style in which the general structure and thematic units are systematically laid out. Additionally, the book provides several graphics that illustrate the main arguments. Northoff's book contributes to establish neuropsychoanalysis as a distinct discipline to which a transdisciplinary perspective is integral. The author archives this by linking and integrating philosophical, psychological, psychiatric, and neuroscientific issues, according to which the need to establish a distinct neuropsychoanalytic methodology can be proclaimed. Consequently, Northoff argues for a refinement of common conceptual and methodological approaches to the brain.
Linking neuroscience and psychoanalysis seeks for a demonstration of how particularly psychodynamic concepts of self and objects are related to specific neuronal mechanisms in the brain. Northoff aims to shed light on which neuronal mechanisms the brain employs and how it enables and predisposes the differentiation of self and objects from the brain per se. Basically, the brain-self/brain-object differentiation presupposes the following considerations: In reconsidering Freud's tripartition of the id, the ego, and the superego, the ego (or self, as Northoff uses the terms synonymously) as associated with the inner world of individuals, is distinct and must be differentiated from objects of the outer world. This roughly is the concept of self-object differentiation (further elaborated in chap. 6) according to which the enabling and predisposing processes of the constitution of self and object as being distinct from each other can be explained. The constitution of both, self and object, fundamentally depends on how the id provides and invests the energy for this constitution. But apparently, what comes prior to the constitution of self-object differentiation is the discrimination of self and object from the brain itself in our experience and perception and thus in mental states, as without this no self and/or object could even be addressed. This is crucial to the concepts of brain-object --and brain-self differentiation, according to which one can describe the processes essential to the constitution of self and objects as being distinct from the brain. As it will be later described in detail, Northoff's basic claim is that one can only understand the brain's differentiation from self and objects, when one focuses on the "neural platform" (p.10) of the brain's resting-state activity and how it affects the construction of self and objects in virtue of the brain's processing of stimuli from the environment and body. This differentiation and its substantiation in terms of a particular kind of neural coding (so-called difference-based coding) is the pivotal element of the book. Northoff elaborates it throughout the book in the light of a transdisciplinary perspective. This can be addressed against the backdrop of the following debate: As is widely known, one specific research field in current neuroscience devoted to the search for those neuronal mechanisms underlying consciousness and commonly referred to as NNC (cf. Koch 2004, The Quest for Consciousness) aims to identify those neural mechanisms that can count as sufficient to induce consciousness and further describes the relations between specific functions (e.g. working memory) and consciousness. Current neuropsychoanalysis addresses the question of sufficient neural conditions of psychodynamic mechanisms (NCP). While NNC and NCP both concentrate on the neural conditions of consciousness and as such embrace the function-and localization-based approach, NCP of neuropsychoanalysis goes further in not restricting itself to consciousness solely, but also to investigate the unconscious. A problem of NCP is, however, that it cannot account for the necessary neural conditions which become relevant with reference to Freud's structure-based account, i.e. when one asks how the psychological structure and organization can be extended to the brain. Northoff heads in a new direction in showing that it takes more than just to reveal neural correlates of specific psychodynamic contents. Since the mere neural correlate hypothesis just focuses on the sufficient conditions, one has to target the neural conditions that are necessary but non-sufficient in addition. This implies a shift towards the neural predispositions as those necessary neural conditions provided by the brain itself, supposed to enable and predispose to the psychological functions and their respective mental contents. From Northoff's point of view, one has to go further in order to find those neuronal mechanisms and the particular kind of neural coding that can substantiate the brain-object and brain-self differentiation.
As the 'neural predisposition of psychodynamics" (NPP) is introduced in being different from the neural-correlate account that refers to the operating and executing (i.e. the sufficient but non-necessary) conditions of mental contents in psychodynamic concepts, one has to explain what the neural predisposition and NPP refer to in empirical terms of brain functions. In analogy to Freud's method to target the structure and organization of the psychic apparatus in leaving aside mental content, Northoff suggests to tackle the empirical functions associated with neural predispositions, first of all, independently from psychological functions and their localization. His study breaks new ground as it presents an alternative to current neuroscience and the NCP. The NPP is crucial for the substantiation of the concepts of brain-self/brain-object differentiation, which presupposes the investigation of how these neural predispositions provided by the brain are in particular related to the constitution of self and objects as distinct from the brain. It turns out that the brain's intrinsic activity and its impact on rest-stimulus interaction are considered as necessary condition for, and respectively as neural predisposition to the brain-object/brain-self differentiation. Northoff discusses these issues in much greater detail in the respective parts of the books:
(1) Part I, entitled 'Conceptual Equipment' (pp.19-82), in which Northoff explores a transcendental approach to the brain, restates the unknowability-hypothesis and different brain concepts, and argues for a transdisciplinary methodology, which leads to his account of the `concept-fact iterativity' of neuropsychodynamics. The conceptual perspective is tackled by addressing first theoretical issues of the brain concept. Accordingly, Northoff draws in chapter 1 on some of Freud's metapsychological considerations, which he rearranges by contextualizing them mainly in the framework of Immanuel Kant's transcendental philosophy. While Northoff uses Kant's as well as certain aspects of Schopenhauer's transcendental approach to account for the concept of the brain, the differences between Freud's approach to the psyche and particularly Kant's theory of the mind are revealed, as well as those aspects according to which the similarities can indeed be defended. The transcendental approach to the brain is then further discussed in its empirical relevance and according to conceptual implications for neuropsychoanalysis, while particular objections to the transcendental view of the brain -- such as the common category error argument -- are readdressed in detail in the Epilogue.
In asking what we actually can know about the brain, chapter 2 addresses epistemic concerns of the transcendental approach of the brain and is presented against the backdrop of Freud's conception of the psychic apparatus. In analogy to Freud's claims about the restricted access to and the limits of knowledge about the psychic apparatus, one can address the same question when it comes to our brain. This is the prelude to the discussion of the basic claim that in order to understand the neuronal predispositions of brain-self --and brain-object differentiation, the brain has to be understood predominantly in terms of a function-based perspective. This preference for the functional concept of the brain is made clear by distinguishing it from two other concepts of the brain -- the observed brain and the experienced brain -- while Northoff clarifies the epistemic, conceptual and empirical dimensions of all three concepts.
Chapter 3 focuses on the reliability and validity of connecting psychodynamic concepts with neuroscientific facts. Basically, Northoff favors a twofold methodological strategy: on one hand, psychodynamic concepts get contextualized within the neuronal realm, while, on the other, the brain's neuronal mechanisms are reconsidered within the framework of the psychodynamics of self and objects. The results of comparing and matching the respective concepts with neuroscientific facts are referred to as neuropsychodynamic concept-fact iterativity (p.57ff). In so having stated the conceptual grounds as well as methodological strategy by the iterativity-approach in the first part, this is the basis for the following other three parts of the book, which are predominantly emphasizing on empirical issues.
(2) Part II of the book focuses on `Neural Equipment' (pp. 87-160) and aims to specify the neural-code hypothesis, i.e. that a specific difference-based coding is employed by the brain and enables as well as predisposes to brain-self and brain-object differentiation. Basically, the brain's neuronal predisposition is explored in determining difference-based coding, which describes how the intero-and exteroceptive stimuli are coded and processed in relation to the resting-state activity of the brain. Difference-based coding is furthermore contextualized psychodynamically, inasmuch as its relations to the concepts of cathexis (libido investments) and defense mechanisms are discussed in more detail. Respectively, in the chapter 4 the psychodynamic concept of cathexis is introduced in relating it to the brain's energy balance. Northoff's recent findings on `rest-stimulus' -- and `stimulus-rest interaction clarify how the brain invests its resting-state activity in stimulus-induced activity and how this enables and predisposes to difference-based coding. Thus, investigating the brain's intrinsic activity in focusing on resting state activity (also figuratively referred to as the 'neural platform` of our mind p. 10) sheds light on what was earlier referred to as neural predisposition. Understanding the brain's intrinsic activity as neural predisposition is a consequence of making sense of the enormous level of resting-state activity, which is no longer regarded as mere "background noise" (p.7) to stimulus- induced activity, but moreover accounted for in terms of their relation and interdependency (cf. Northoff et al 2010, Rest stimulus interaction in the brain). Consequently, the resting-state activity and the impact on stimulus-induced activity -- as associated with psychological functions -- is described as necessary but non-sufficient conditions that have been emphasized above in their relevance for the NPP. In chapter 5 a detailed description is given of how the difference-based coding contributes to the transformation of neuronal states into mental states (coined 'neuronal-mental transformation`). But what is a mental state? Conceptually, it is addressed due to a phenomenal perspective, i.e. as referring to the subjective experience of phenomenal and mental states, which is commonly distinguished from the third-person perspective of observation of neuronal states. Northoff characterizes two key features of mental states: on one hand, their overreaching the informational aspect provided by a stimulus itself, and the feature of intrinsic intentionality, on the other. This leads Northoff to a discussion of differenced-based coding as enabling and predisposing to the constitution of mental states in regard to what Freud (1895) himself has outlined in his project about the neural origins of mental states. The processes suggested to enable and to predispose the constitution of self and objects as distinct from the brain are recapitulated in chapter 6, which is the key chapter in the book as it explicitly rejects the alleged impossibility of bridging the gaps between neuroscience and psychodynamic concepts, of brain and psychic apparatus, in light of self and objects. Northoff focuses here on defense mechanisms of the early-developmental stage, on their role for the brain's constitution and defense of self and objects. Here the defense mechanisms of internalization and externalization are held central for enabling and predisposing brain-self and brain-object differentiation.
(3) Part III of the book, which is dedicated to `Mental Equipment' (pp. 163-226), centers around the idea that neuronal mechanisms in their relations to the brain's neural code play an important role for the constitution of genuine psychodynamic concepts. Chapter 7 introduces self-objects and their contextualization according to self-psychology and Heinz Kohut's concept of narcissism (cf. Kohut 1971, The Analysis of the Self). Narcissism is here understood as basic feature of the psyche and respectively not restricted to the discussion of its pathologically dimension or solely addressed in terms of a personality trait. Furthermore, Northoff reconnects it with the psychodynamic concept of self-objects and their specification in virtue of neuronal mechanisms focusing on affective assignment. Chapter 8 further illuminates mental equipment with reference to the unconscious and how it becomes manifest in dreams. Northoff puts forth his hypothesis that the very same neuronal mechanisms crucial for enabling and predisposing brain-object and brain-self differentiation in awake states are also operating in the dreaming state, albeit appearing to have a different gestalt. This is designed to provide further evidence, and can be regarded as grain to the mills of Freud's conceptualization of the transitional dynamics of unconscious and consciousness.
Chapter 9 illustrates the psychodynamic concept of the self in its relation to the concept of ego from a neuropsychodynamic perspective, followed by a comparison of neuroscientific and psychoanalytic concepts of the self, regarding them as being compatible with currently held empirical hypotheses about the self based on neuronal findings. Even if one is prepared to grant the similarities in psychodynamic and neuroscientific concepts of the self, there remains, however, a crucial difference between the two: neuroscience refers to the objective, brain-based self, while psychoanalysis is concerned with the psyche-based individual as subjective self. This apparently marks a fundamental gap, which might, at first glance, hush any neuropsychoanalytic enthusiasm of presenting a unifying approach to the self. It rather seems that bridging the gap means to opt for one of the self-concepts thereby facing the dilemma of abandoning the essential features of the respective other concept. While the common choice in neuropsychoanalysis is that of adapting psychodynamic concepts to the concepts in neuroscience, Northoff pursues the strategy of adapting neuroscientific concepts of self and brain to the psyche-based psychodynamic concept of the self. That is why he continues his testing of the plausibility and compatibility of neuroscientific facts and psychodynamic concepts (cf. Northoff, 2004 Philosophy of the Brain) and aims to avoid the reduction of the psychodynamic concept of the self to a neuroscientific description. A genuine neuropsychoanalytic concept of the self is targeted in terms of debating the controversial features of the self according to its neuroscientific vs. psychodynamic conceptualizations (content vs. structure, innateness vs. construction, and entity vs. relation), which then finally leads to the development of the `relational concept' of the self.
(4) Part IV entitled 'Disordered Equipment' (pp.239-312) is concerned with the application of the outlined conceptual, neural, and mental equipment to psychiatric disorders. This is further elaborated by Northoff's account of a redirection, and thus alteration, of neuronal mechanisms in psychiatric disorders such as depression and psychosis. From a neuropsychoanalytic perspective these alterations reveal changes in brain-self and brain-object differentiation as abnormal, and as such are accounted for as psychodynamic key-features in patients with these disorders. Northoff comes full circle here in finally offering an explanation of depression and psychosis in terms of the exemplarily altered brain-self-differentiation (depression) and brain-object differentiation (psychosis). He stringently applies here what has been elaborated in terms of a new methodology to offer an alternative account of depression and psychosis: Instead of focusing on the neural and psychodynamic correlates, he focuses on the neural predisposition, on the necessary and non-sufficient conditions of possible depression and psychosis, i.e. of what mechanism have to set in prior to the onset of any symptoms. Depressive and psychotic symptoms are regarded to be the consequence of the recruitment of a normal functioning of mechanisms within an abnormal context.
Northoff straightly comes to the point in chapter 10 with his analysis of the key features of depression such as reactivation of early object loss, loss of actual object relations (and the respective redirection of energy from actual objects to the lost object), and the increased introjection coupled with negative affect (as such forming the `self-object dilemma' which implies a continuous need to constitute self-objects) are backed by empirical findings. This is followed by a detailed discussion of the complex phenomena of psychosis in the last chapters of the book. While chapter 11 gives an excellent overview of the psychodynamic features of psychosis such as object loss, abnormalities of projection and structural alterations according to which splitting and fragmentation phenomena in psychosis can be refigured, the respective neuropsychodynamic hypotheses are presented in chapter 12. Once more Northoff rather emphasizes on normal functioning within an abnormal neuronal context than on single neuronal deficits. It is the employment of the otherwise normally functioning difference-based coding according to which typical features inherent to psychosis are explained. Moreover, he reminds the reader of an important distinction between so-called 'system-disorders` like depression and psychosis, which affect all levels of the brain and may correspond to an involvement of all the psychodynamic features Northoff discusses, and other pathologies that are associated with more regionally limited dysfunctions in neuronal and psychodynamic mechanisms (e.g. in case of stroke).
In an Appendix (pp.319-323), the question of what makes a healthy brain is finally recapitulated in pointing out that it might be best addressed if one refers to psychopathological conditions, which reveal ex negativo what can be accounted as being central to the healthy brain and psyche. As such, both depression and psychosis help to draw some important (preliminary) conclusions about the neural predispositions of the brain-object and brain-self differentiation, to which we currently do not have a direct access. Finally, Northoff entertains the reader in the Epilog (325-334) with a "trialogue on the beauty of transdisciplinary failure" (p.325ff) between proponents of the three disciplines Northoff mastered to integrate and (re-)connect with his book, namely a philosopher, a neuroscientist and a psychoanalyst. They debate the possibilities and limits of linking psychoanalysis and neuroscience together, and recapitulate some remaining difficulties and further challenges for the enterprise of neuropsychoanalysis.
To make a long story short: Northoff's book makes an impressive contribution to neuropsychoanalysis in clearly demonstrating the impact -- as well as tackling the problems -- of such a transdisciplinary methodology for investigating and integrating brain and psyche. The focus on neural predisposition and its thoughtful development within a truly transdisciplinary framework is an exciting and promising approach and provides solid grounds for further inter- and transdisciplinary dialogue, showing that neuropsychoanalysis has grown out of its infancy.
© 2012 Kerrin A. Jacobs
Kerrin Artemis Jacobs is postdoctoral research fellow at the Institute of Cognitive Science at the University of Osnabrueck (Germany). Her main research interests are in Philosophy of Psychiatry, Ethics, and Philosophy of Psychoanalysis.