email page print pageAll Topic Reviews
"Are You There Alone?""How Come Boys Get to Keep Their Noses?""My Madness Saved Me"10% Happier365 Days49 Up56 UpA Beautiful MindA Beautiful MindA Beautiful MindA Book of ReasonsA Can of MadnessA Child's Life and Other StoriesA Dangerous LiaisonA Fight to BeA First-Rate MadnessA Good Enough DaughterA Heartbreaking Work of Staggering GeniusA Lethal InheritanceA Lethal InheritanceA Life ShakenA Life Worth LivingA Little PregnantA Message from JakieA Million Little PiecesA Numerate LifeA Pocket History of Sex in the Twentieth CenturyA Slant of SunA Special EducationA Tribe ApartAbout FaceAddicted Like MeADHD & MeAEIOUAgainst Medical AdviceAgents in My BrainAileen - Life and Death of a Serial KillerAlgernon, Charlie and IAll Out!All Seasons PassAlphavilleAlways Too Much And Never EnoughAlzheimer'sAn Anthropologist on MarsAn EducationAn Unquiet MindAngela's AshesAngelheadAnna Freud: A BiographyAnnie's GhostsAnother Bullshit Night in Suck CityAnthology of a Crazy LadyApples and OrangesApproaching NeverlandAre You There, Vodka? It's Me, ChelseaAs I Live and BreatheAs Nature Made HimAt Home in the Heart of AppalachiaAt the End of WordsAvalancheBad BoyBad GirlBeautiful BodiesBeautiful BoyBeautiful WreckBecause We Are BadBecoming AnnaBecoming MyselfBen Behind His VoicesBequest and BetrayalBereftBertrand RussellBlackoutBlanketsBloodlettingBodies in Motion and at RestBoneBorn on a Blue DayBoyBoy AloneBoyleBrain on FireBreaking ApartBreaking the SilenceBrokenBulimics on BulimiaBuzzCamus and SartreCharles DarwinChasing the HighCheeverCherryCity of OneCluesClumsyComfortComplications Compulsive ActsConfessions of a Cereal EaterConfessions of a Former ChildConfessions of a Grieving ChristianConfessions of the Other MotherConfidingConquering the Beast WithinContesting ChildhoodCrackedCrazyCry Depression, Celebrate RecoveryDamned to EternityDancing at the Shame PromDante's CureDaughter of the Queen of ShebaDavid Sedaris Live at Carnegie HallDays With My FatherDefeating the VoicesDementia Caregivers Share Their StoriesDepression and NarrativeDescartesDetourDevil in the DetailsDiagnosis: SchizophreniaDirty DetailsDirty SecretDivided MindsDivine MadnessDon't Get Too ComfortableDown Came the RainDress Your Family in Corduroy and DenimDrinkingDriving My FatherDrunkardDryEarly Embraces IIIEarly ExposuresEinsteinEinstein and OppenheimerElectroboyElegy for IrisElijah's CupElliott Smith and the Big NothingElsewhereEnough About YouEpilepticEvery Girl Tells a StoryEverything In Its PlaceExamined LivesExiting NirvanaFaces of Huntington'sFamily BoundFast GirlFearless ConfessionsFind MeFinding Iris ChangFirst Person Accounts of Mental Illness and RecoveryFirst Person PluralFixing My GazeFlanneryFolie a DeuxFor the Love of ItFortress of My YouthFrank Ramsey (1903-1930)Franz KafkaFraudFree RefillsFreudFreudFreudFriedrich NietzscheFrom Joy Division to New OrderFumblingFun HomeFuriously HappyGalileo Get Me Out of HereGetting OffGirl in Need of a TourniquetGirl Walking BackwardsGirl, InterruptedGirl, InterruptedGirls on the VergeGoing BlindGoing Through Hell Without Help From AboveGraysonGrowing Up JungGuttedHalf a Brain Is EnoughHardcore from the HeartHead CasesHeal & ForgiveHeal & Forgive IIHeavier than HeavenHeinz KohutHeinz KohutHello from Heaven!Hello to All ThatHer HusbandHer Last DeathHigh PriceHole in My LifeHolidays On IceHolidays on IceHope's BoyHouse of Happy EndingsHouse of Happy EndingsHow I Stayed Alive When My Brain Was Trying to Kill MeHow to Lose Friends & Alienate PeopleHow to Make Love Like a Porn Starhow to stop timeHumeHunger Makes Me a Modern GirlHurry Down SunshineI Am I Am I AmI Feel Bad About My NeckI Never Promised You a Rose GardenI Remain in DarknessI'd Rather Eat ChocolateI'd Rather LaughIf I Die Before I WakeImagining RobertIn Search of FatimaIn the Realms of the UnrealIn the Wake of SuicideInside TherapyInternInvisible No MoreIt Happened to NancyIt Takes a Worried ManJack Cole and Plastic ManJean-Paul SartreJohn Stuart MillJourneys with the Black DogJust CheckingKafkaKantLa SierraLab GirlLast Flight OutLearning to FallLet Me Make It GoodLife As We Know ItLife InterruptedLife ReimaginedLimboLincoln's MelancholyListening in the Silence, Seeing in the DarkLittle PeopleLive For Your Listening PleasureLive Through ThisLiving in the Shadow of the Freud FamilyLiving With SchizophreniaLiving with SchizophreniaLockeLonelyLong ShotLook Me in the EyeLooking for The StrangerLoose GirlLosing Mum and PupLosing My MindLove Is a Mix TapeLove SickLove Times ThreeLove Works Like ThisLove You, Mean ItLuckyLudwig WittgensteinLyingMad HouseMad PrideMadame ProustMadnessMagical ThinkingMalignant SadnessManicMarcel ProustMarcus AureliusMary BarnesMaverick MindMe Talk Pretty One DayMeaningMelanie KleinMemoirMemoirs of an Addicted BrainMemoirs of My Nervous IllnessMen-ipulationMisconceptionsMiss American PieMockingbird YearsMomma and the Meaning of LifeMommies Who DrinkMonkey MindMore, Now, AgainMortificationMy Age of AnxietyMy Body PoliticMy Brain Tumour AdventuresMy DepressionMy Father's HeartMy First Cousin Once RemovedMy Flesh and BloodMy Horizontal LifeMy Life Among the Serial KillersMy Sister LifeMy Stroke of InsightName All the AnimalsNeural MisfireNietzscheNietzsche: The Man and His PhilosophyNinety DaysNo Hurry to Get HomeNo Impact ManNo More ShavesNo One Cares About Crazy PeopleNolaNotebooks 1951-1959NothingOdd Girl Speaks OutOedipus WreckedOf Spirits & MadnessOn Being RapedOn the Edge of DarknessOn the MoveOne Hour in ParisOne Hundred DaysOphelia SpeaksPagan TimePassing for NormalPeople Who Eat DarknessPerfect ChaosPerfect ExamplePermanent Present TensePersepolisPlanet of the BlindPlaying with FirePlease Don't Kill the FreshmanPoisoned LovePollockPOPismPortraits of Huntington'sPoster ChildProzac DiaryPsychiatrist on the RoadPsychosis in the FamilyPuppy Chow Is Better Than ProzacQuitting the Nairobi TrioRaising BlazeReasons to Stay AliveRebuiltRecovered, Not CuredRelative StrangerRescuing JeffreyRestricted AccessRevengeRewind, Replay, RepeatRichard RortyRiding the Bus With My SisterRobert Lowell, Setting the River on FireRoom For JRosemaryRough MagicRunning After AntelopeRunning with ScissorsScattershotSchizophreniaSchopenhauerSecond OpinionsSectionedSeeing EzraSeeing the CrabSet the Boy FreeSex & Single GirlsSex ObjectShakespeareShe Bets Her LifeShe Got Up Off the CouchShut the DoorSickenedSilencing the VoicesSimone de BeauvoirSinging in the FireSkin GameSlackjawSlut!SmashedSome Assembly RequiredSome Kind of GeniusSometimes Amazing Things HappenSometimes Madness Is WisdomSongs from the Black ChairSongs of the Gorilla NationSoren KierkegaardSpeak to MeSpeaking Our Minds: Revised EditionSpecial SiblingsSpentStandbyStick FigureStill LivesStretchSunset StorySurviving OpheliaSwing LowTales from Both Sides of the BrainTales of PsychotherapyTalk to HerTell Me Everything You Don't RememberTellingTelling Tales About DementiaThe Accidental BillionairesThe AddictThe Anatomy of HopeThe Anti-Romantic ChildThe Art of MisdiagnosisThe Bastard on the Couch CDThe BeastThe Bell JarThe Best Seat in the HouseThe Big FixThe Body SilentThe Boy on the Green BicycleThe Boy Who Loved Too MuchThe Boy Who Loved WindowsThe Bright HourThe Buddha & The BorderlineThe Burn JournalsThe Camera My Mother Gave MeThe Cancer Monologue ProjectThe Center Cannot HoldThe Chelsea WhistleThe Churkendoose AnthologyThe Day the Voices StoppedThe Devil WithinThe DisappearanceThe Discomfort ZoneThe Doctor Is InThe Eden ExpressThe Family SilverThe Farm Colonies: Caring for New York City's Mentally Ill In Long Island's State HospitalsThe Fasting GirlThe First Man-Made ManThe First TimeThe Geography of BlissThe Glass CastleThe Good DoctorsThe Hillside Diary and Other WritingsThe Incantations of Daniel JohnstonThe Infidel and the ProfessorThe Last AsylumThe Last Good FreudianThe Last Time I Wore a DressThe Liars' ClubThe Lives and Loves of Daisy and Violet HiltonThe Lives They Left BehindThe LobotomistThe Long GoodbyeThe Looked After Kid: Memoirs from a Children's HomeThe Loony-Bin TripThe Madness of Our LivesThe Making of a PhilosopherThe Making of Friedrich NietzscheThe Man Who Couldn't EatThe Man Who Shocked the WorldThe Man Who Tasted ShapesThe Marvelous Hairy GirlsThe Maximum Security Book ClubThe Me in the MirrorThe Memory PalaceThe Mercy PapersThe Mistress's DaughterThe Mother of Black HollywoodThe Naked Bird WatcherThe Naked Lady Who Stood on Her HeadThe Neuroscientist Who Lost Her MindThe Night of the GunThe Noonday DemonThe Notebook GirlsThe NursesThe Only Girl in the CarThe Orchid ThiefThe Other HollywoodThe OutsiderThe Philosopher's Autobiography The Philosophical Breakfast ClubThe Philosophical IThe Pits and the PendulumThe Pornographer's GriefThe Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner The Professor and the MadmanThe Psychopath TestThe Quiet RoomThe RecoveringThe Red DevilThe Rescue of Belle and SundanceThe Ride TogetherThe Rules of the TunnelThe Secret of LifeThe Shaking Woman or A History of My NervesThe Shared HeartThe Shiniest JewelThe Siren's DanceThe Statistical Life of MeThe Story of My FatherThe Strange Case of Hellish NellThe Summer of a DormouseThe SurrenderThe Talking CureThe Thought that CountsThe Three of UsThe Undoing ProjectThe Vagina MonologuesThe Velveteen FatherThe Winter of Our DisconnectThe Woman Who Walked into the SeaThe Years of Silence are PastThe Yellow HouseThe Yipping TigerThick As ThievesThinThis Close to HappyThomas S. SzaszTiger, TigerTits, Ass, and Real EstateTo Redeem One Person Is to Redeem the WorldTo Walk on EggshellsTransforming MadnessTrue CompassTruth & BeautyTruth Comes in BlowsTuesdays with MorrieTweakTwitch and ShoutUltimate JudgementUndercurrentsUnholy GhostUnlikelyVoices of AlcoholismVoices Of Alzheimer'sVoices of CaregivingVoices of RecoveryVoluntary MadnessWaiting for DaisyWar FareWashing My Life AwayWastedWaveWe're Going to Need More WineWe're Not MonstersWeather Reports from the Autism FrontWeekends at BellevueWhat Did I Do Last Night?What Goes UpWhat I Learned in Medical SchoolWhat's Normal?When a Crocodile Eats the SunWhen Breath Becomes AirWhen Do I Get My Shoelaces Back?.....When It Gets DarkWhen the Piano StopsWhen You Are Engulfed in FlamesWhere Did It All Go Right?Where is the Mango Princess?Where the Roots Reach for WaterWhile the City SleptWhile They SleptWho Was Jacques Derrida?Why I Left, Why I StayedWhy I'm Like ThisWildWill's ChoiceWinnicottWinnieWish I Could Be ThereWith Their EyesWomen Living with Self-InjuryWomen, Body, IllnessWrestling with the AngelYou Must Be DreamingYour Voice in My HeadZeldaZor
How does one start to review a magnificent, deeply moving account of loss, despair, and the slow process of healing via the reconstruction of one's world? First the facts and the emotion -- then the reconstruction of a life. This is such a profoundly moving book that I imagine it getting a major literary award. The author/victim/survivor is a very intelligent person with strong social and cultural resources. Her writing is elegant, spare, and unsentimental.
Sonali Deraniyagla comes from a distinguish Sri Lankan family with homes both in Colombo and London. On the morning of December 26, 2004, she and her family including her parents, her husband (Steve), and her two boys (Vik & Malli) were vacationing at a resort (Yala) on the Southern Coast of Sri Lanka, when the large tsunami hit that coast with such a force that it destroyed hundreds of homes, swept away trees and vegetation, and killed thousands of people along the coast. The height of the wave was estimated to be between 30 and 40 feet at the resort, and the force such that it carried everything before it for 1 to 2 miles inland. The resort hotel was completely washed away except for its foundation. In Sri Lanka, 35,322 were identified as dead and 19,000 were missing and not recovered by 2006. More than half a million persons were displaced.
How did it appear to Sonali as the sole survivor in her immediate family? The initial reactions were sheer fear and disbelief. As she is being hurled by the water, she thinks "This cannot be happening. . . .I [see] brown water. . . .My head is above the water now [but]I am still being swept a such a speed. There is nothing that I can hold." (p. 11) Finally, the force of the water begins to slow and by floating on her back she can see the sky and other bodies in the water without knowing if they are dead or alive. When she can finally stand in the mud, she wretches, coughing up sand and blood, takes off her pants which are heavy with sand, mud and debris. Rescue workers arrived shortly, find her twirling in the mud, and forced her to come with them to a center, covering her nakedness with a shirt and later with a blanket. In her stupor, she vacillates between hoping her husband and children have survived and doubting that they could have. In the first two days, she hates to talk about what has happened to her and her family and vacillates between wanting to go back to Yala (which she does) and wanting to go to Colombo were her kin are. An over-riding emotion now is anger. For the next 6 months, she stayed in her cousin's room at a house in Columbo, leaving only to use the bathroom. Her overriding desire is to die: "How is this me? I was safe always. Now I don't have them. I only have terror. I am alone. My stomach cramped. I pressed a hot water bottle to my chest to calm the hammer blows to my heart, but they would not stop.
I stabbed myself with a butter knife. I lashed at my arms and my thighs. I smashed my head on the sharp corner of the wooden headboard of the bed. I stubbed out cigarettes on my hands. I didn't smoke, I only burned them into my skin. Again and again.
I don't have them to hold. What do I do with my arms?
Soon, very soon, I have to kill myself.
I was never left alone. An army of family and friends guarded me night and day." (pp. 42-43)
After four months, Steve and Vik's bodies are found among those in a large common grave and identified by DNA testing. When she is told this, she is thrown into emotional turmoil again. When she stumbles across references to things that she and the boys did together, the psychological pain is intense: "I must stop remembering. I must keep them in a faraway place. The more I remember, the greater my agony. These thoughts stuttered through my mind. So I stopped talking about them I would not mouth my boys' names. I shoved away stories of them." (p.51) She was barely able to offer one thing to the memorial service their friends planned for Steve in London. Next came drinking to excess. Once she started she could not stop because the drinking blotted out the unwanted memories. "If I drank through the night, I didn't have to dream. Each night I dreamed of fleeing, of running from something, some nights it was water, some nights it was churning mud, other nights I didn't know what. In these dreams always one of them died. Then I'd wake to my real nightmare.' (p.54)
Anger at the losses continued to overwhelm her. As she began to go out in Colombo, she visits her parent's house, which has been gotten ready for sale by her brother. On finding one of Vik's cricket stumps, she turns it into a weapon with which she can demolish their former bed. "I stabbed the mattress with the muddied point end, over and over, harder and harder, until a tear appeared, and again to make the hole deeper. . .. The four of us slept here in all our innocence. That'll teach us" (p. 69)
Finally, she can go back to Yala--with Steve's parents. After finding a page from one of Steve's economic reports, things changed for her. She became interested in finding everything that she could. She visited often and obsessively dug through the rubble of the hotel and went into the wilderness to find things of theirs. As she lay on the floor of their hotel room, the tightness in her chest eased. She began to feel calm and she "found the nerve to remember" (p. 75).
A crisis came when, at one year after the losses, her brother rented their parent's house to a Dutch couple. She took it as betrayal by her brother, raged at him for taking away a space that meant so much to her. So she began to stalk and harass the Dutch family. She conceived of it as something that she and Steve were doing together, but after a couple of months, the couple changed their phone number and she lost the will to continue the harassment.
In 2006, she went back to London for a memorial lecture in Steve's honor. "I am in England? I can't grasp the truth of this. . . .it is now almost two years since the wave. But the reality of being here eludes me. I can't focus. I am dazed. . . .If I have too much clarity, I will be undone, I fear." (pp. 87-88)
But in 2007, she begins to have pleasant flashbacks while riding in the English countryside with friends. She allows herself to be drawn into precise details of their Sunday afternoon rides in the country--what she did, what the boys did, and then the spell is broken. She sees her boys' shoes and remembers that the police took one for DNA testing and that brings her back to the reality of her loss. At nearly four years after the Wave, she returns to their home in London. She had dreaded this step, been afraid that it would undo her, but it did not. "I find myself at ease. It feels natural, despite my protestations to myself that this is not ordinary or natural because they are not here and never will be….And I slip into my old ways, unthinkingly. I begin to tidying up a bit, putting things where they should be. . .Who am I readying the house for, they are not coming back. Don't be a fool, this is mad. But I can't stop. I go into the kitchen and switch on the fridge." (pp. 100-101) She has three women friends over. They talk together and cry together. "[T]his is indeed like old times, but it seems bearable, I am enjoying it even. Then I warn myself. I shouldn't get too comfortable." (p. 104)
As she goes through things in the house--bills to be paid, items of clothing, dishware--she frets with herself. "I saw how, in an instant, I lost my shelter. This truth had hardly escaped me until then, far from it, but the clarity of that moment was overwhelming. And I am still shaking. [My friends] would be aghast to see the mess I am now. This is not me, this is not who I was with [my family and friends]." (p. 111)
She is wracked with feelings of shame and a sense of unworthiness. She is a mother who did not do enough to save her children. "I feel helplessly responsible for their death." (p. 123) She is humiliated by her fate being outlandish, not palatable to others. She avoids telling strangers of her situation.
So, how does she get the focus, energy and strength to write such a detailed account of her losses? She reconstructs her world step by step. It happens as she allows herself to remember the details of everyday living with her family. By doing this, she can hold onto the ways in which she is still Steve's wife, Vik and Malli's mother. After a weekend with friends whose daughters played with her sons, she realizes that "so much of Vik and Malli remains embedded in these girls. So how can I want to escape from them?" (p. 138) She returns to Yala, but this time, she wants to know. When she returns to the house in London, "there is a difference now. Their absence is not so heavy, not so leaden. ...I sleep wearing Steve's sarong, and I remember trying to inch away from him as he insisted on sleeping wrapped up in me. And how badly I still want that. Yet I am warmed by this knowing and this wanting. It helps me better tolerate the bareness of our bed." (pp. 145-146)
She sees the children of her friends often now. "They are bubbling over when we meet, I enjoy their sparkle. And they make my boys real, so they are not beyond my field of vision." (p. 149) In 2010, she returns home to Colombo and finds that she is ready to grieve her parents and to be in their home. She arranges to have three Buddhist monks perform a ceremony that passes merit to the dead. The last 50 pages are devoted to opening up and to genuinely remembering her life with Steve, her parents, and her boys. It is written with great joy and one feels the growing comfort that she has in being in their lives still--not swept away but holding onto the life that will continue to be hers.
Why is this such an important book for therapists to read? The author deals with one of the most extreme kinds of loss one can suffer, with precision and force. She has the conceptual terms right. Over and over she expresses it as the loss of her world, of a world that had a place for her as mother, wife, and daughter (see pp. 32, 39-40, Ossorio, 2006; Wechsler, 2013). A person's world consists of her behavioral possibilities--what she can do and cannot do. A trauma transforms one's world because the unthinkable has happened. In a blink, she has lost her entire family. Such traumas have consequences for the self-concept. Suddenly she is not the person that she had taken herself to be. She is a failure as a mother, a person to be ashamed of and to be avoided. The reconstruction involves allowing herself to remember them, being less judgmental about what she could have done in the circumstances of the tsunami, and enjoying the thoughts of how they would have grown with their friends. By writing Wave, she has reclaimed her family not only for herself but for all of us.
Ossorio, P. G. (2006). The behavior of persons. Volume 5 in the Collected Works of Peter G. Ossorio. Ann Arbor, MI: Descriptive Psychology Press.
Wechsler, R. (2013). Trauma concepts: A Descriptive Psychology formulation of the nature of trauma and elucidation of treatment modes. In R. M. Bergner, K. E. Davis, F. Lubuguin, & W. Schwartz (Eds.). Advances in Descriptive Psychology (Vol. 10),
© 2013 Keith E. Davis
Keith E. Davis, PhD., Department of Psychology, University of South Carolina