email page print pageAll Topic Reviews
A New Understanding of Mental Disorders A Theory of Feelings Addictions Memory and the Self"Intimate" Violence against Women1001 Solution-Focused Questions101 Healing Stories101 Things I Wish I'd Known When I Started Using Hypnosis50 Great Myths of Popular Psychology50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a God8 Keys to Body Brain BalanceA Brief History of Modern PsychologyA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Conceptual History of Psychology: Exploring the Tangled Web A Cooperative SpeciesA Guide to Teaching Introductory PsychologyA History of Modern Experimental PsychologyA History of Psychology in AutobiographyA History of Social PsychologyA History of the BrainA History of the MindA Hole in the HeadA Matter of SecurityA Mind of Its OwnA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Place for ConsciousnessA Short Introduction to Promoting Resilience in ChildrenA Social History of PsychologyA Stroll With William JamesA System Architecture Approach to the BrainA Theory of FreedomA Very Bad WizardAbductedAbout FacesAccounts of InnocenceAction, Emotion and WillAdapting MindsAddiction and Self-ControlADHD & MeADHD in AdultsAdieu to GodAdolescence and Body ImageAdult Bipolar DisordersAdvances in Culture and PsychologyAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAffect Regulation, Mentalization, and the Development of SelfAffective MappingAgainst EmpathyAgainst HappinessAges and StagesAll Joy and No FunAll Out!All We Have to FearAlterations of ConsciousnessAmerican Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical NeurosciencesAn Argument for MindAncient Bodies, Modern LivesAnd BreatheAnimal MadnessAnimal Tool BehaviorAnimals in TranslationAnomalous CognitionAping MankindArtificial ConsciousnessAspects of PsychologismAsperger Syndrome and Your ChildAsperger Syndrome, Adolescence, and IdentityAssessment and Treatment of Childhood Problems, Second EditionAssisted Suicide and the Right to DieAttachedAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutism and the Myth of the Person AloneAutopsy of a Suicidal MindBecoming an Effective PsychotherapistBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing No OneBelievingBetween Two WorldsBeyond AppearanceBeyond BlueBeyond BullyingBeyond MadnessBeyond MelancholyBeyond the BrainBeyond the DSM StoryBig DreamsBiofeedback for the BrainBipolar ChildrenBipolar DisorderBipolar KidsBlackwell Handbook of Childhood Cognitive DevelopmentBlind SpotsBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlubberlandBlushBodiesBody ConsciousnessBody Image, Eating Disorders, and Obesity in YouthBody SenseBody WorkBorderline Personality DisorderBorderline Personality Disorder and the Conversational ModelBorn DigitalBorn to Be GoodBorn Together - Reared ApartBounceBoundaries in Human RelationshipsBounded RationalityBozo SapiensBrain and CultureBrain and the GazeBrain Arousal and Information TheoryBrain BugsBrain Change TherapyBrain Circuitry and Signaling in PsychiatryBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-Based Therapy with AdultsBrain-WiseBrainstormBrainstormingBraintrustBrainwashingBrandedBreaking Murphy's LawBright-SidedBuddha's BrainBullying and TeasingBuyologyCan't You Hear Them?CaptureCare of the PsycheCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCerebrum 2007Cerebrum 2010Cerebrum 2015Cerebrum Anthology 2013Changing the SubjectCharacter Strengths and VirtuesCheating LessonsChild and Adolescent Psychological DisordersChildren’s Dreaming and the Development of Consciousness Chomsky NotebookClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyClinical Psychology in Practice ClosureCognition and PerceptionCognition and the BrainCognitive BiologyCognitive DissonanceCognitive FictionsCognitive Mechanisms of Belief ChangeCognitive PragmaticsCognitive ScienceCognitive ScienceCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Therapy of Anxiety DisordersCognitive Unconscious and Human RationalityCold-Blooded KindnessComing of Age in Second LifeCommunication Issues In Autism And Asperger SyndromeCompassion and Healing in Medicine and SocietyComplementary and Alternative Therapies ResearchComprehending ColumbineConfessions of a SociopathConquering Shame and CodependencyConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the Social BrainConsciousness EmergingConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Self-Consciousness, and the Science of Being HumanConstructing PainConsumer NeuroscienceContemporary Debates in Cognitive ScienceConversations on ConsciousnessConviction of the InnocentCooperation and Its EvolutionCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCredit and BlameCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychologyCritical Thinking About PsychologyCross-Cultural PsychologyCrowdsourcingCrueltyCultural Assessment in Clinical PsychiatryCuriousDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous and Severe Personality DisorderDaniel DennettDaughters of MadnessDeafness In MindDeath and ConsciousnessDeath of a ParentDecomposing the WillDeep Brain StimulationDeep ChinaDefining DifferenceDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions of GenderDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDeparting from DevianceDescartes' BabyDescartes's Changing MindDescribing Inner Experience?Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Destructive EmotionsDevelopment of Geocentric Spatial Language and CognitionDevelopment of PsychopathologyDialogues on DifferenceDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Digital HemlockDirty MindsDisgust and Its DisordersDisorders of VolitionDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Doing without ConceptsDrunk Tank PinkEducating People to Be Emotionally IntelligentEffective IntentionsEffective Writing in PsychologyEffortless AttentionEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbracing MindEmbracing UncertaintyEMDR Therapy and Somatic PsychologyEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotionally InvolvedEmotionsEmotionsEmotions and LifeEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions RevealedEmotions, Aggression, and Morality in ChildrenEmotions, Stress, and HealthEmpathyEnjoymentErotic MoralityEscape Your Own PrisonEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthically Challenged ProfessionsEveryday Mind ReadingEvidence for PsiEvidence-Based Mental Health PracticeEvil MenEvolution and Human BehaviorEvolution and LearningEvolution, Games, and GodEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolutionary Psychology as Maladapted PsychologyExacting BeautyExperiences of DepressionExperimenterExplaining the BrainExplaining the BrainExplorations in Neuroscience, Psychology and ReligionExploring TranssexualismExpression and the InnerExtending Self-Esteem ResearchExtraordinary BeliefsFact and Value in EmotionFaking ItFatigue as a Window to the BrainFavorite Activities for the Teaching of PsychologyFeeling GoodFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFinding Meaning, Facing FearsFitting In Is OverratedFive Constraints on Predicting BehaviorFlourishingFlow: The Psychology of Optimal ExperienceFolk Psychological NarrativesFooling HoudiniForever YoungFormulation in Psychology and PsychotherapyFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Psychological ThoughtFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom EvolvesFrom Axons to IdentityFrom Madness to Mental HealthFrom Neurons to Self-ConsciousnessFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrom Symptom to SynapseFrontiers of ConsciousnessGay, Straight, and the Reason WhyGenerosityGenes, Environment, and PsychopathologyGenetic Nature/CultureGeniusGetting Under the SkinGlued to GamesGoing SaneGot Parts?Group GeniusGrowing Up GirlGuilt, Shame, and AnxietyGut ReactionsHallucinationHandbook New Sexuality StudiesHandbook of Closeness and IntimacyHandbook of Critical PsychologyHandbook of Emotion RegulationHandbook of EmotionsHandbook of Personality DisordersHandbook of PsychopathyHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Spatial CognitionHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness at WorkHappiness Is.Happy at LastHard to GetHardwired BehaviorHatredHealing the SplitHidden ResourcesHope and DespairHot ThoughtHot ThoughtHouse and PsychologyHow Animals Affect UsHow Animals GrieveHow Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Doctors ThinkHow Enlightenment Changes Your BrainHow Families Still MatterHow History Made the MindHow Infants Know MindsHow Many Friends Does One Person Need?How People ChangeHow Professors ThinkHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Change Someone You LoveHow We ReasonHow We RememberHughes' Outline of Modern PsychiatryHumanHuman BondingHuman Reasoning and Cognitive ScienceHume’s Moral Philosophy and Contemporary PsychologyHypnotismHysteriaiBrainIdentifying Hyperactive ChildrenIdentifying the MindiDisorderImagination and the Meaningful BrainImitation and the Social MindImpulse Control DisordersImpulsivityIn an Unspoken VoiceIn Defense of SentimentalityIn DoubtIn Search of HappinessIn the Wake of 9/11Individual and Collective Memory ConsolidationInner Experience and NeuroscienceInner PresenceInside the American CoupleIntegrated Behavioral Health CareIntegrating Evolution and DevelopmentIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntellectual DisabilityIntelligenceIntelligence, Destiny, and EducationIntentions and IntentionalityInterdependent MindsInterpreting MindsInto the Minds of MadmenIntoxicating MindsIntrospection VindicatedIntuitionInventing PersonalityInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIs There Anything Good About Men?Issues for Families, Schools and CommunitiesJane Sexes It UpJoint AttentionJoint AttentionJudgment and Decision MakingJust a DogJust BabiesJuvenile-Onset SchizophreniaKarl JaspersKey Thinkers in PsychologyKidding OurselvesKids of CharacterKilling MonstersLack of CharacterLanguage OriginsLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw, Mind and BrainLess Than HumanLet Kids Be KidsLet's Talk About DeathLiving NarrativeLiving with Mild Cognitive ImpairmentLonelinessLooking for SpinozaLossLOT 2Love at Goon ParkMachine ConsciousnessMacrocognitionMade for Each OtherMadnessMadness and Modernism: Insanity in the light of modern art, literature, and thought Making a Good Brain GreatMaking Habits, Breaking HabitsMaking Minds and MadnessMaking Up the MindMale SexualityMan and WomanMan's Search for MeaningMan, Beast, and ZombieManic MindsManlinessMapping the MindMarking the MindMarvelous Learning AnimalMasculinity Studies and Feminist TheoryMeaningMeaning, Mortality, and ChoiceMedical MusesMeditating SelflesslyMeetings with a Remarkable ManMemoryMemory and DreamsMemory and EmotionMemory And UnderstandingMental BiologyMental IllnessMental Time TravelMetacognitionMetacognition and Theory of MindMethods in MindMindMindMind and BrainMind and ConsciousnessMind Games:Mind in LifeMind TimeMind to MindMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMindful AngerMindfulnessMindfulnessMindfulness and AcceptanceMindfulness-Based Treatment Approaches: Clinician's Guide to Evidence Base and ApplicationsMinding AnimalsMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds, Brains, and LawMindsightMindworldsMirrors in the BrainMistakes Were Made (But Not by Me)Models of MadnessMoodMoral Development and RealityMoral MindsMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Mothers and OthersMotivation and Cognitive ControlMotivational Interviewing: Preparing People For ChangeMovies and the MindMulticulturalism and the Therapeutic ProcessMultiplicityMuses, Madmen, and ProphetsMy Family AlbumMyths about SuicideNarrative IdentitiesNarrative PsychiatryNarratives in PsychiatryNaturalizing Intention in ActionNature and NarrativeNature Via NurtureNeither Bad nor MadNerveNeurobiology and the Development of Human MoralityNeurochemistry of ConsciousnessNeurodiversityNeuroethicsNeuroLogicNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neuroscience and PhilosophyNo Child Left DifferentNo Two AlikeNot By Genes AloneNot Much Just Chillin'Not So Abnormal PsychologyNurturing the Older Brain and MindOn AnxietyOn Being an Introvert or Highly Sensitive PersonOn Being HumanOn Being MovedOn Deep History and the BrainOn DesireOn KillingOn Nature and LanguageOn PaedophiliaOn PersonalityOn the Frontier of AdulthoodOn the Origins of Cognitive ScienceOn The Stigma Of Mental IllnessOnflowOpen MindsOpening Skinner's BoxOrigin of MindOrigins of PsychopathologyOther MindsOut of Our HeadsOut of the WoodsOvercoming Depersonalization DisorderPanpsychism and the Religious AttitudePanpsychism in the WestParenting and the Child's WorldPassionate EnginesPathologies of the WestPatient-Based Approaches to Cognitive NeurosciencePediatric PsychopharmacologyPeople Types and Tiger StripesPerception & CognitionPerception beyond InferencePerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPersonal Development and Clinical PsychologyPerspectives on ImitationPhantoms in the BrainPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhrenologyPhysical RealizationPhysics in MindPieces of LightPlaying with FirePositive PsychologyPositive PsychologyPostcards from the Brain MuseumPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPoverty and Brain Development During ChildhoodPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical Management of Personality DisorderPractical Management of Personality DisorderPredicative MindsPredictably IrrationalPreference, Belief, and SimilarityPrenatal Testosterone in MindPrivileged AccessProcess-Based CBTProcrastinationProust Was a NeuroscientistPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsychological AgencyPsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychological Dimensions of the SelfPsychologists Defying the CrowdPsychologyPsychologyPsychology and Consumer CulturePsychology and LawPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology for ScreenwritersPsychology of Women: A Handbook of Issues and TheoriesPsychology's GhostsPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology's TerritoriesPsychopathologyPsychopathyPsychosis and EmotionPsychotherapy, American Culture, and Social PolicyPutnam CampPutting a Name to ItQuantum Memory PowerQuietRadical DistortionRadical Embodied Cognitive ScienceRadical ExternalismRadical GraceRapeRe-Visioning PsychiatryReal MaterialismReality CheckReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecovery in Mental IllnessRecreative MindsRedirectReducing Adolescent RiskRegulating EmotionsRelational BeingRelational Mental HealthRelational Suicide AssessmentReliability in Cognitive NeuroscienceRemembering HomeRemembering Our ChildhoodResearch Advances in Genetics and GenomicsResearching Children's ExperienceResilience in ChildrenRestoring ResilienceRethinking ADHDRethinking Learning DisabilitiesRethinking Middle YearsRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfRevolution in PsychologyRoadmap to ResilienceRomance and Sex in Adolescence and Emerging AdulthoodSchadenfreudeSchizophrenia RevealedSchizophrenia, Culture, and SubjectivityScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologyScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologySecond NatureSecond NatureSecond That EmotionSecond-order Change in PsychotherapySecrets of the MindSee What I'm SayingSee What I'm SayingSeeing and VisualizingSeeing RedSelf and SocietySelf Comes to MindSelf Control in Society, Mind, and BrainSelf-Awareness Deficits in Psychiatric PatientsSelf-CompassionSelf-Consciousness and 'Split' BrainsSelf-RegulationSelf-Representational Approaches to ConsciousnessSelfless InsightSelvesSerial KillersSex at DawnSex on the BrainSex, Time and PowerSexual Coercion in Primates and HumansSexual DisordersSexual FluiditySexual ReckoningsSexualized BrainsShame and GuiltShatteredSimulating MindsSisyphus's BoulderSleepyheadSNAPSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial Psychology and DiscourseSome We Love, Some We Hate, Some We EatSoul DustSparkSpiral of EntrapmentSplendors and Miseries of the BrainSports Hypnosis in PracticeStanding at Water's EdgeStich and His CriticsStillpowerStop OverreactingStructure and Agency in Everyday LifeStructures of AgencyStuffStumbling on HappinessSubjectivity and SelfhoodSubstance Abuse and EmotionSuicidalSupersizing the MindSweet DreamsSynaptic SelfTales from Both Sides of the BrainTalking Oneself SoberTalking to BabiesTaming the Troublesome ChildTargeting AutismTeaching Problems and the Problems of TeachingTeleological RealismTen Years of Viewing from WithinTestosterone RexThat's DisgustingThe 5 Elements of Effective ThinkingThe Accidental MindThe Age of EmpathyThe Altruism EquationThe Altruistic BrainThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Clinical PsychiatryThe Anatomy of BiasThe Anxious BrainThe Archaeology of MindThe Art and Science of MindfulnessThe Art InstinctThe Art of HypnosisThe Asymmetrical BrainThe Bifurcation of the SelfThe Big Book of ConceptsThe Big DisconnectThe Birth of IntersubjectivityThe Birth of the MindThe Blackwell Handbook of Organizational Learning and Knowledge ManagementThe Blank SlateThe Body Has a Mind of Its OwnThe Bounds of CognitionThe Boy Who Was Raised as a DogThe BrainThe BrainThe Brain and the Meaning of LifeThe Brain SupremacyThe Brain That Changes ItselfThe Brain's Way of HealingThe Brain: Big Bangs, Behaviors, and BeliefsThe Cambridge Handbook of Cognitive ScienceThe Cambridge Handbook of Situated CognitionThe Character of ConsciousnessThe Chemistry Between UsThe Choice EffectThe Clinical Science of Suicide PreventionThe Cognitive Approach to Conscious MachinesThe Cognitive Behavioral Workbook for Anxiety: A Step-By-Step ProgramThe Cognitive NeurosciencesThe Cognitive-Emotional BrainThe College Fear FactorThe Commercialization of Intimate LifeThe Compass of PleasureThe Compassionate ConnectionThe Concepts of ConsciousnessThe Conscious BrainThe Conscious SelfThe Consuming InstinctThe Creating BrainThe Creative BrainThe Crucible of ConsciousnessThe Crucible of ExperienceThe Cure WithinThe Dao of NeuroscienceThe Developing MindThe Developing MindThe Development of PsychopathologyThe Disappearance of the Social in American Social PsychologyThe Dissolution of MindThe Duty to ProtectThe Educated ParentThe Ego TunnelThe Elephant in the RoomThe Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human ExperienceThe Emotional Foundations of PersonalityThe Emotional Journey of the Alzheimer's FamilyThe Encultured BrainThe Encyclopedia of StupidityThe Enduring Self in People with Alzheimer'sThe Epidemiology of SchizophreniaThe Essential DifferenceThe Ethical BrainThe Evolution of BeautyThe Evolution of ChildhoodThe Evolution of CooperationThe Evolution of LanguageThe Evolution of MindThe Evolving BrainThe Executive BrainThe Faces of TerrorismThe Feeling BrainThe Feeling of What HappensThe First IdeaThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Foundations of Cognitive ArchaeologyThe Fundamentalist MindsetThe GapThe Gender TrapThe Geography of BlissThe Gift of ShynessThe Good LifeThe Good LifeThe Happiness HypothesisThe Happiness of PursuitThe Health Psychology HandbookThe Healthy Aging BrainThe Heart of TraumaThe High Price of MaterialismThe History of PsychologyThe Human FaceThe Human SparkThe Hypomanic EdgeThe Imagery DebateThe Immeasurable MindThe Imprinted BrainThe Incredible Shrinking MindThe Innate MindThe Innate MindThe Integrated SelfThe Intentional BrainThe Language of ThoughtThe Languages of the BrainThe Lexicon of Adlerian PsychologyThe Lie DetectorsThe Lives of the BrainThe Lonely AmericanThe Lust for BloodThe Madness of WomenThe Male BrainThe Man Who Lost His LanguageThe Man Who Shocked the WorldThe Man Who Tasted ShapesThe Man Who Wasn't ThereThe Matter of the MindThe Mature MindThe Mean Girl MotiveThe Meaning of EvilThe Meaning of OthersThe Meaning of the BodyThe Measure of MadnessThe Measure of MindThe Medicalization of Everyday LifeThe Mind and the BrainThe Mind in ContextThe Mind of the ChildThe Mind of the HorseThe Mind's EyeThe Mind, the Body and the WorldThe Mind-Gut ConnectionThe Mindful BrainThe Misleading MindThe Moral MindThe Most Dangerous AnimalThe Most Human HumanThe Mother FactorThe Myth of ChoiceThe Myth of Depression as DiseaseThe Myth of Mirror NeuronsThe Myth of Self HelpThe Myth of Self-EsteemThe Myth of the Spoiled ChildThe Nature of the SelfThe Necessity Of MadnessThe Neuro RevolutionThe Neuron and the MindThe Neuropsychology of the UnconsciousThe Neuroscience of Human RelationshipsThe Neuroscience of PsychotherapyThe Neuroscience of Psychotherapy: Healing the Social BrainThe New BrainThe New Science of DreamingThe New Science of the MindThe New UnconsciousThe Normal PersonalityThe Origins of FairnessThe Overflowing BrainThe Oxford Companion to the MindThe Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of MindThe Paradoxical PrimateThe Perfectionist's HandbookThe Peripheral MindThe Phenomenology ReaderThe Philosopher's Secret FireThe Philosophical BabyThe Political MindThe Politics of HappinessThe Positive Side of Negative EmotionsThe Postnational SelfThe Postpartum EffectThe Power of PlayThe Praeger Handbook of TranssexualityThe Present Moment in Psychotherapy and Everyday LifeThe Primate MindThe Prism of GrammarThe Psychobiology of Trauma and Resilience Across the LifespanThe Psychological Construction of EmotionThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of HappinessThe Psychology of LifestyleThe Psychology of Religious FundamentalismThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of SpiritualityThe Psychology of StereotypingThe Psychology of SuperheroesThe Psychophysiology of Self-AwarenessThe Pursuit of PerfectThe Quest for Mental HealthThe Rational ImaginationThe Ravenous BrainThe Reasons of LoveThe Righteous MindThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Routledge Handbook of ConsciousnessThe Science of EvilThe Science of Intimate RelationshipsThe Science of Shame and its Treatment The Second SelfThe Secret History of EmotionThe Secret Lives of BoysThe Self and Its EmotionsThe Self-Sabotage CycleThe Sense of SelfThe Sensitive SelfThe Shape of ThoughtThe Social AnimalThe Social Nature of Mental IllnessThe Social Neuroscience of EmpathyThe Social Psychology of Good and EvilThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Story of Intellectual DisabilityThe Structure of ThinkingThe Survivors ClubThe Talking ApeThe Teenage BrainThe Tell-Tale BrainThe Temperamental ThreadThe Tender CutThe Tending InstinctThe Time ParadoxThe Trauma MythThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trouble with IllnessThe True PathThe Truth About GriefThe Turing TestThe Uncertain SciencesThe Undoing ProjectThe Unhappy ChildThe Upside of IrrationalityThe War for Children's MindsThe Well-Tuned BrainThe Wild Girl, Natural Man, and the MonsterThe Winner's BrainThe Wisdom in FeelingThe Woman RacketThe World in My Mind, My Mind in the WorldThe Wow ClimaxThe Yipping TigerThemes, Issues and Debates in PsychologyTheoretical Issues in Psychology: An IntroductionTheory of AddictionTheory of MindThings and PlacesThink CatThink Confident, Be ConfidentThinking about AddictionThinking and SeeingThis Emotional Life: In Search of Ourselves...and HappinessThought and LanguageThought in a Hostile WorldTo Have and To Hurt:Toward an Evolutionary Biology of LanguageToward Replacement Parts for the BrainTrauma and Human ExistenceTrauma, Tragedy, TherapyTreating Attachment DisordersTreating Self-InjuryTreating Self-Injury: A Practical GuideTrue to Our FeelingsTrusting the Subject?Understanding and Treating Borderline Personality DisorderUnderstanding ConsciousnessUnderstanding ParanoiaUnderstanding PeopleUnderstanding TerrorismUndoing Perpetual StressUnlock the Genius WithinUnsettled MindsUnstrange MindsUnthinkingUnthoughtUs and ThemViolent PartnersVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVision and MindVisual AgnosiaWarrior's DishonourWe Who Are DarkWednesday Is Indigo BlueWelcome to Your BrainWhat Do Women Want?What Dying People WantWhat Have We DoneWhat Intelligence Tests MissWhat Is an Emotion: Classic and Contemporary ReadingsWhat Is Emotion?What is Intelligence?What Is Mental Illness?What Is Thought?What Makes Your Brain Happy and Why You Should Do the Opposite What the Best College Students DoWhat the Dog SawWhat We Know about Emotional IntelligenceWhat We Say MattersWhat's Wrong With Morality?When Boys Become BoysWhen Perfect Isn't Good EnoughWhen the Impossible HappensWhen Walls Become DoorwaysWho's Been Sleeping in Your HeadWho's in Charge?Why Humans Like to CryWhy Love MattersWhy Lyrics LastWhy People CooperateWhy People Die by SuicideWhy Sex Matters: A Darwinian Look at Human BehaviorWhy Smart People Can Be So StupidWhy the Mind is Not a ComputerWhy Us?Why We LieWhy We LoveWhy We SleepWider than the SkyWilliam James at the BoundariesWilling, Wanting, WaitingWittgenstein And PsychologyWomen and Child Sexual AbuseWorking MindsYoga and PsychologyYou Are What You RememberYoung Minds in Social WorldsYour Brain on CubsYour Brain on FoodYour Brain on Food: How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings,Your Brain on YogaYour Child in the BalanceZombies and Consciousness
In a photo taken in 1856, the painter Richard Dadd is shown with the tools of his trade, as it was customary in early portrait photography. He looks to the left of the camera, his brush still touching the canvas which will become Contradiction: Oberon and Titania. If he seems absentmindedly locked on some ever-receding target, this is perhaps due to the prolonged time needed for exposure, or to the washed-out quality of the surviving image. There is also the uncustomary setting of this photo. It is one of a series Henry Hering took of psychiatric patients, in an attempt to characterize the physiognomy of madness. Dadd had been an inmate of Bethlem Hospital, the original Bedlam, since 1844. Before his asylum career, his art had been unexceptional, and he showed an interest in the Orient (this was not unusual in the era, either). But Dadd left the ordinary behind when he returned from an expedition in Egypt convinced he had a special connection with the god Osiris. Back in Britain, he killed his father, in whom he saw the devil. Therefore Bethlem. He continued to paint, but he was a changed man and his art was also transformed. Formerly conformist, it now acquired a stranger, darker nature. Writing about Dadd's masterpiece, The Fairy Feller's Master-Stroke, Neil Gaiman explains his fascination thus:
"Before Dadd's madness (…) his paintings are quite pretty, and perfectly ordinary (…). Nothing special or magical about them. Nothing that would make them last. Nothing true. (…) Dadd spent the rest of his life behind bars, surrounded by the criminally insane, and as criminally insane as any of them, but with a message for us from, as it were, the other side."
This certainly sounds right, but how would one know, faced with the intensity and evocative beauty of Dadd's latter art, if one located its authentic message, if one absorbed its truth and not a simulacrum of one's own making? The question seems inescapable. If this is something one cannot know, then one should not continue to think that one is faced here with a task (or even a duty) of understanding. What is at work in such cases is not the common difficulty of interpreting art, but a more stringent worry about locating meaning in madness. On the one hand, we would not want to underestimate the opacity of a mind like Dadd's and misconstrue it as a mere veil which can be penetrated ("other side") by translating and restoring meaning to the apparent noise and rubble. On the other, we would want a convincing defense to the rejoinder that there will not be much left in terms of explaining madness if we gave up the idea of understanding it by recognizing the significance of symptoms.
It has been a foundational difficulty of theories of abnormal psychology to account for the bizarreness of paradigmatic psychosis, and there have been many frustrated attempts to convert the alien quality of delusions and hallucinations into something theoretically and clinically manageable. The Measure of Madness, the last book by Philip Gerrans, presents an unambiguous answer to the explanatory dimension of this challenge. Gerrans argues that by now the relevant disciplines – psychiatry, neuroscience, cognitive psychology – have the sketch of a theory which can explain delusion. This theory will deflate the explanatory crisis exemplified above by Dadd's case. It will not be purely biological, rendering the psychotic mind, as it were, silent, but neither will it depend on notions like belief or rationality which invite interpretive speculation (it will not be a "doxastic" theory). Rather, the explanation will combine multiple levels of description, from the biochemical to the behavioral, with a focus on the cognitive characterization of the processes which lead to delusion, and on the mechanisms which support said processes. That is to say that even if this will not be a doxastic theory – i.e. one which tries to assimilate delusions to exotic beliefs – it will be a functional theory, one which accounts for delusion by asking what the relevant mental processes are typically for.
The first part of the book presents the background against which Gerrans builds his argument, and then assembles systematically the elements of his proposal. The main idea is that generally the source of delusional ideation is a breakdown in an information processing system which works hierarchically. Delusions are a kind of unsupervised thoughts, more precisely what Gerrrans calls "default thoughts". The first four chapters of the book gradually introduce and explain what "default thought" is and why it can be derailed in the form of delusion. Alternative accounts are considered and rejected. The remaining six chapters develop the explanatory machinery by tackling specific problems and extending the discussion of the literature. Among the topics Gerrans deals with, some are predictable, such as the relation between dreams and delusion, and typical delusional syndromes, other perhaps less so, such as the first person experience of delusion.
Those who are familiar with the philosophical inclinations and prose of contemporary Australian authors such as Paul Griffiths and Kim Sterelny will recognize that Gerrans's book fits in the same niche in terms of style. It is economical, at points deliberately subdued, thoroughly informed by the relevant science, unapologetic about jargon, and thematically opportunistic. The fact that the ideal here is no-nonsense clarity does not stop Gerrans from engaging with topics ranging from neuroscience to asylum psychiatry, and with authors as diverse as Hume (on the limits of empathy) or Louis Sass (on the phenomenology of delusion). For the uninitiated readership, following all these incursions and keeping track of the terminology may be difficult.
Gerrans has written before on the topic of delusion, especially circumscribed psychoses like the Cotard and Capgras syndromes. The argument presented here is however quite novel and certainly more ambitious than what he has done previously. The true measure of madness, Gerrans argues, will not be found if one expects to discover it in either of the two domains psychiatric theorizing has historically oscillated between. Two "autonomist" theses are to be rejected: first, that delusion is a phenomenon to be conceived at the personal level, as deviant (inferentially failed) belief; second, that delusion is to be left entirely to neuroscience, as some sort of brain tissue quirk. The relevant level is information processing, a midland which can accommodate both data from neuroscience and reports of symptoms. Once this lens is in place, one can track delusion down to its neural roots or up to its experiential outcome.
While this prologue is typical of cognitive theories, the case presented in The Measure of Madness is of considerable subtlety. In rejecting autonomist theories, for example, Gerrans suggests a lucid qualification of Jaspers's verdict that serious delusion is opaque, therefore not a candidate for functional explanation. Delusions are not noise. The usual repertoire of normative concepts (belief, rationality) may not be helpful in such cases, but Gerrans insists that the very fact that we are in a position to judge delusions bizarre alludes to words being used in more or less the usual way in patients' reports. Moreover, one should not dismiss easily the idea that delusions are responses to experience – a parallel to empirical beliefs being typically responses to perception. This positioning gives some footing for considering delusions cognitive in nature, but it reintroduces the usual difficulty of dealing with delusional content. The latter problem, the books seems to argue, will dissolve once the mechanisms which produce delusions are understood.
Gerrans proposes a guiding definition of delusion that is designed to avoid the complications of normative discourse and which should eventually result in a testable model. This is the definition: "Delusions arise when default cognitive processing, unsupervised by decontextualized processing, is monopolized by hypersalient information." (p. 38). Each of the three components is explained by identifying its typical role in the processing hierarchy. Neural implementation and phenomenology are also used as evidence.
Default cognitive processing is explained as a low level associative process evolved to support planning by simulating and rehearsing scenarios ("mental time travel") in the absence of external stimulation. This kind of processing is implemented by the so-called "default mode network". Especially when idling ("screensaver mode" – p.67), this system produces default thoughts which are not circumscribed by the norms of inference, consistency, and empirical adequacy of paradigmatic conscious thought. The mind wanders. There is however at least some degree of narrative structure and – a problematic notion – subjective adequacy in the default stream. Stories or narrative filaments are connected to the personal history, needs, or experiences of the subject. They "fit with the agent's psychology" (p. 75). Dreams are the obvious proxy.
The default mode network is a story teller with a weakness for the audience's preferences. It is not trustworthy, and as such it needs supervision and scrutiny. In cognitive scientific talk, default processing is held in check by decontextualized processing, which is a superior level of the system, and which tries to align the mind with what happens to be the case (executive control). Autobiographical coherence gives way to objectivity and rationality, and competing narratives are tested empirically and inferentially, since the real world, unlike imaginary scenarios, can have nasty consequences. In neuroscientific talk, there is a division of labor and of power between older regions of the brain and newer (dorsolateral) regions. As exemplified by the familiar case of dreams, the balance of power can and does fluctuate.
At all levels in the processing hierarchy resources are limited, so budgeting needs some prioritizing. Salience systems mark some tasks or bits of information as urgent, other as less so. Most of this happens below the threshold of consciousness (you will not need much deliberation to orient yourself to that startling noise), but salience can be experienced at its upper limit as "cognitively depleting directed attention and concentration" (p. 45).
With this minimal sketch in place, one can begin to see how Gerrans's model works. In delusion, as in dreams, default processing is more or less left to its own devices. Unlike in dreams, decontextualized supervision fails in the waking state. Moreover, salience is derailed and the result is a "spectacular misallocation of cognitive resources" (p. 40). Since some information, for example perceptual anomalies, is marked as salient, the default system will be oriented to those anomalies and it will flood the mind with narratives that try to tame them by weaving "subjectively adequate" stories.
This account obviously raises a number of questions, and Gerrans answers some of them convincingly. For example, he points out that, as in dreams, at least in some delusions of misidentification there is evidence that the neural regions (probably) supporting decontextualized processing – areas in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex – are hypoactive (p. 109). That should mitigate to some extent the question of there being proof of a failure of higher information processing or gating. Another prominent question is how salience systems are hijacked and how they impact, at their turn, default processing. This question returns us to the issue of delusional content.
Why should delusions be about what they are? Why, for example, should paranoid delusions involve ominous conspiratorial themes? In Gerrans's terms, what kind of information becomes (abnormally) salient so that such default thoughts are the output of default processing? The book is, I think, at its best, but also at its most fragile, in trying to solve this problem. Gerrans is aware that he does not have – not yet at least – a general solution. (Perhaps one is not even in the cards.) The account presented in Measure is tributary to Gerrans's previous work on specific delusional syndromes such as Capgras, where the patient is confused about the identity of a familiar person, Fregoli, where the patient attributes the identity of a familiar person to a stranger, or Cotard, where the patient typically claims she is dead.
There seems to be a near consensus about Capgras, to take this example, that at least one of the causes is perceptual. Gerrans describes this as a failure of "binding". At some point in the processing of information about a seen face, multiple components are normally integrated. Among them, the visual features, perhaps stored elements, like the name, but also autonomic reactions that color seeing a familiar person with an emotional valence. In Capgras patients, it is suspected that the latter is lost. They recognize the face, but they do not experience the expected emotion. This dissociation somehow cascades into the delusion that the familiar person has been replaced by an impostor. It is relatively easy to see how that may fit in Gerrans's model: the salient information is the missing emotional response; this captures default processing and a narrative is produced to make sense of the experience; if this narrative is not filtered out by decontextualized processing, the person becomes delusional.
As Gerrans himself observes, locating candidates for salience does not by itself explain the content of delusions or their resistance to argument and evidence (e.g. "It seems clear that perceptual or recognitional systems alone cannot be responsible for the content of the thought." – p. 149). For example, delusions such as Capgras are rather "circumscribed and monothematic" (p. 154). This is to say that the patients do not seem to have serious difficulties in "decontextualizing" in general. Why they should be unable to evaluate and reject a relatively small set of ideas remains, speculation aside, mysterious. Even more so is the elaboration of the delusional narrative – in Capgras from a mere apathetic reaction to suspecting sinister happenings.
Gerrans follows the literature here and considers possible "second factors". Something other than a mere perceptual deficiency makes the patient maintain her bizarre convictions. To keep to the example of Capgras, one way to describe such a second factor is to refer to a putative tendency of the patient to prefer paranoid explanations. The tendency may be local, e.g. mood-dependent, or generalized ("attributional style"). Gerrans prefers to trace a second factor to the evolved role of the default system – i.e. to the fact that it is not designed to produce and test hypotheses (belief fixation), but to imagine scenarios. This, I think, does not evaporate the obvious difficulty of delusional stories being both strange and, like beliefs, sometimes acted upon. Gerrans does stress the second difficulty and tries to answer it by discussing how imagination can be "incorporated" into the practical reasoning of a subject.
The author is also aware that it is not trivial to project from one kind of delusion to the next. The discussion of how the default processing model might explain passivity of thought in schizophrenia (Chapter 8) is instructive in this respect. Some patients diagnosed with schizophrenia say that they experience thoughts which are not their own – they are not the authors of those thoughts and have little control over them. One much discussed idea in the field, often associated with suggestions made by Christopher Frith in the late 1980s and early 1990s, is to treat passivity of thought on a parallel with passivity of action. In the case of action, the theory has it that patients "monitor" poorly the behaviors they initiate, and therefore they have the tendency to attribute them to other agents. As a result, they may develop delusions of alien control. It is the "monitoring" – planning and overseeing action to avoid error – which makes one's actions one's own, and if that is lost, there will be free-floating intentions which will be experienced as external.
Whatever one may think of this theory, it works poorly for thought, since, unlike action, thoughts are not goal-directed, planned, and revised to match intended outcome. Gerrans notes these problems (p. 197), but, as others have done before, concentrates his treatment on the idea that some delusions of passivity may not be strictly of thought, but of inner speech or subvocalizations – i.e. of actions. This avoids the issue rather than solve it. The issue however might be a false one to begin with, inherited from the framework established by Frith, in which it is as if thoughts need to be labeled one's own or else they will be attributed externally.
The final section of the book focuses on the phenomenology of delusion. Gerrans uses a canonical case, that of Paul Schreber, whose autobiography has been somewhat of a fixation ever since Freud speculated on it more than a century ago. Gerrans reads Schreber via the writings of Louis Sass, which is an interesting touch, since the two authors are very different in style and inclinations. Sass's phenomenological analysis of Schreber suggests the need of a framework of understanding delusion which is detached from the familiar conceptual domain of belief and interpretation. In Madness and Modernism, for example, Sass has us see Schreber descending on a twisted spiral from Foucault's Discipline and Punish. Gerrans is less interested in Schreber as, in some sense, quintessentially modern, as in the description of his "lifeworld". In this Prussian's obsessive preoccupation with his own experience Gerrans sees an echo of what the default processing model suggests: a cancerous spread of unanchored autobiographical narrative.
The ambiguous, articulate, and benign Schreber, though a tragic character, may set an overoptimistic tone to the book's conclusion – and to this review. Gerrans has written a book which provides a glimpse of the state of the art, at least when it comes to what cognitive theories can throw at psychoses. It is also, to my knowledge, an original addition to this particular theoretical family. But the puzzle I started with, that which is better exemplified by Dadd than by Schreber, remains intact. Gerrans has given us even more reasons to suspect that the mad, while poorly equipped, are striving, like all of us, to make sense of their world and of themselves. The Measure of Madness, however, for all its merits, does not ultimately have a working theory of content for delusions. Given its presupposition that it can take seriously the experience of patients – its significance – without inviting in the normative notions involved in interpretation (essentially, that of belief), perhaps it could not have one.
© 2016 George Tudorie
George Tudorie is a teaching assistant, College of Communication and PR, Bucharest.