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Anger and Forgiveness"Are You There Alone?"10 Good Questions about Life and DeathA Casebook of Ethical Challenges in NeuropsychologyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to Muslim EthicsA Cooperative SpeciesA Critique of the Moral Defense of VegetarianismA Delicate BalanceA Fragile LifeA Life for a LifeA Life-Centered Approach to BioethicsA Matter of SecurityA Mirror Is for ReflectionA Mirror Is for ReflectionA Natural History of Human MoralityA Philosophical DiseaseA Practical Guide to Clinical Ethics ConsultingA Question of TrustA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Short Stay in SwitzerlandA Tapestry of ValuesA Very Bad WizardA World Without ValuesAction and ResponsibilityAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionActs of ConscienceAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction NeuroethicsAdvance Directives in Mental HealthAfter HarmAftermathAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HealthAgainst MarriageAgainst Moral 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ScienceEthics and the A PrioriEthics and the Discovery of the UnconsciousEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics at the CinemaEthics at the End of LifeEthics Case Book of the American Psychoanalytic AssociationEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics for EveryoneEthics for PsychologistsEthics for the New MillenniumEthics in CyberspaceEthics in Everyday PlacesEthics in Health CareEthics In Health Services ManagementEthics in Mental Health ResearchEthics in PracticeEthics in PsychiatryEthics in PsychologyEthics in Psychotherapy and CounselingEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEthics, Culture, and PsychiatryEthics, Sexual Orientation, and Choices about ChildrenEvaluating the Science and Ethics of Research on HumansEvilEvil GenesEvil in Modern ThoughtEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolutionary Ethics and Contemporary BiologyEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolved MoralityExperiments in EthicsExploding the Gene MythExploiting ChildhoodFacing Human SufferingFact and ValueFacts and ValuesFaking ItFalse-Memory Creation in Children and AdultsFat ShameFatal FreedomFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist TheoryFinal ExamFirst Do No HarmFirst, Do No HarmFlashpointFlesh WoundsForced to CareForgivenessForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and ReconciliationForgiveness and RetributionForgiveness is Really StrangeFoucault and the Government of DisabilityFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Forensic Mental Health AssessmentFree WillFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will and Reactive AttitudesFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree?Freedom and ValueFreedom vs. InterventionFriendshipFrom Darwin to HitlerFrom Disgust to HumanityFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Silence to VoiceFrom Valuing to ValueFrontiers of JusticeGender in the MirrorGenetic PoliticsGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetics of Original SinGenetics of Original SinGenocide's AftermathGetting RealGluttonyGood WorkGoodness & AdviceGreedGroups in ConflictGrowing Up GirlGut FeminismHabilitation, Health, and AgencyHandbook for Health Care Ethics CommitteesHandbook of BioethicsHandbook of Children's RightsHandbook of PsychopathyHappinessHappiness and the Good LifeHappiness Is OverratedHard FeelingsHard LuckHardwired BehaviorHarmful ThoughtsHeal & ForgiveHealing PsychiatryHealth Care Ethics for PsychologistsHeterosyncraciesHistorical and Philosophical Perspectives on Biomedical EthicsHoly WarHookedHookedHow Can I Be Trusted?How Fascism WorksHow Propaganda WorksHow to Do Things with Pornography How to Make Opportunity EqualHow Universities Can Help Create a Wiser WorldHow We HopeHow We Think About DementiaHuman BondingHuman Dignity and Assisted DeathHuman Dignity and Assisted DeathHuman EnhancementHuman GoodnessHuman Identity and BioethicsHuman TrialsHumanism, What's That?Humanitarian ReasonHumanityHumanizing MadnessI am Not Sick I Don't Need Help!I Was WrongIdentifying Hyperactive ChildrenIf That Ever Happens to MeImproving Nature?In Defense of FloggingIn Defense of SinIn Love With LifeIn Our Own ImageIn the FamilyIn the Land of the DeafIn the Name of IdentityIn the Wake of 9/11In Two MindsInclusive EthicsInformed Consent in Medical ResearchInnovation in Medical TechnologyInside Assisted LivingInside EthicsIntelligence, Race, and GeneticsIntensive CareInto the Gray ZoneIs Human Nature Obsolete?Is Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Is There a Duty to Die?Is There an Ethicist in the House?Issues in Philosophical CounselingJudging Children As ChildrenJust a DogJust BabiesJust CareJustice for ChildrenJustice for HedgehogsJustice in RobesJustice, Luck, and KnowledgeJustifiable ConductKant on Moral AutonomyKant's Theory of VirtueKids of CharacterKilling McVeighLack of CharacterLack of CharacterLaw and the BrainLearning About School ViolenceLearning from Baby PLeaving YouLectures on the History of Political 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Brain Made Me Do ItMy Sister's KeeperMy Sister's KeeperMy WayNano-Bio-EthicsNarrative MedicineNarrative ProsthesisNatural Ethical FactsNatural-Born CybogsNaturalized BioethicsNeither Bad nor MadNeoconservatismNeonatal BioethicsNeurobiology and the Development of Human MoralityNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNew Takes in Film-PhilosophyNew Waves in EthicsNew Waves in MetaethicsNietzsche on Ethics and PoliticsNo Child Left DifferentNo Impact ManNormative EthicsNormativityNothing about us, without us!Oath BetrayedOf War and LawOn ApologyOn Being AuthenticOn EvilOn Human RightsOn The Stigma Of Mental IllnessOn the TakeOn Virtue EthicsOn What MattersOn What We Owe to Each OtherOne ChildOne Nation Under TherapyOne World NowOne World NowOur Bodies, Whose Property?Our Bodies, Whose Property?Our Daily MedsOur Faithfulness to the PastOur Posthuman FutureOut of EdenOut of Its MindOut of the ShadowsOverdosed AmericaOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Studies in Normative EthicsOxford Studies in Normative Ethics, Volume 7Oxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPassionate DeliberationPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perfecting VirtuePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonalities on the PlatePersonhood and Health CarePersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPerspectives On Health And Human RightsPharmaceutical FreedomPharmacracyPharmageddonPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhysician-Assisted DyingPicturing DisabilityPilgrim at Tinker CreekPlaying God?Playing God?Political EmotionsPornlandPowerful MedicinesPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical EthicsPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical RulesPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic NeuroethicsPraise and BlamePreferences and Well-BeingPrimates and PhilosophersPro-Life, Pro-ChoiceProcreation and ParenthoodProfits Before People?Progress in BioethicsProperty in the BodyProzac As a Way of LifeProzac on the CouchPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric EthicsPsychiatry and EmpirePsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychology and Consumer CulturePsychology and LawPsychotropic Drug Prescriber's Survival GuidePublic Health LawPublic Health Law and EthicsPublic PhilosophyPunishing the Mentally IllPunishmentPursuits of WisdomPutting Morality Back Into PoliticsPutting on VirtueQuality of Life and Human DifferenceRaceRadical HopeRadical VirtuesRape Is RapeRe-creating MedicineRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReckoning With HomelessnessReconceiving Medical EthicsRecovery from SchizophreniaRedefining RapeRedesigning HumansReducing the Stigma of Mental IllnessReflections on Ethics and ResponsibilityReflections On How We LiveReframing Disease ContextuallyRefusing CareRefuting Peter Singer's Ethical TheoryRelative JusticeRelativism and Human 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How Much?Why Some Things Should Not Be for SaleWisdom, Intuition and EthicsWithout ConscienceWomen and Borderline Personality DisorderWomen and MadnessWondergenesWould You Kill the Fat Man?Wrestling with Behavioral GeneticsWriting About PatientsYou Must Be DreamingYour Genetic DestinyYour Inner FishYouth Offending and Youth Justice Yuck!
Every year sees the publication of at least a couple of new introductions to Kant's moral philosophy. To some extent this is both understandable and unavoidable. Kant's influence on contemporary ethics is substantial, probably only rivalled by the influence of other notable historical figures such as Aristotle, Hume and Mill. The abiding influence of and interest in Kant's ethics means that there is an apparently insatiable demand for new introductions to this aspect of Kant's philosophy. Furthermore Kant's writings are notoriously difficult, and some introductory groundwork is usually needed to get the uninitiated going. Finally, recent years have seen a surge of interest in previously neglected aspects of Kant's philosophical thought, e.g. his anthropological writings and his empirically oriented popular essays, which has led many philosophers to also reinterpret fundamental features of Kant's moral theory. These reinterpretations are currently being introduced to a wider philosophical audience through introductory companions to and handbooks on Kant's moral philosophy.
Michael Cholbi's Understanding Kant's Ethics is yet another contribution to this ever expanding pantheon of introductions to Kant's moral theory. Cholbi's explicit aim is to not only present a compact overview of the basic ideas of Kant's ethics, but to argue that Kant's moral philosophy can and should be "viewed as a viable candidate for the true (or the best) philosophical theory of morality" (p. 2)". Cholbi's book is thus not simple an introduction to, but a defense of Kant's ethical theory; a defense which Cholbi himself describes as both opinionated (as in; not neutral but sympathetically inclined towards Kant) and analytical (since it attempts to relate the different elements of Kant's theory to each other and to his theory as a whole). (p. 2).
The book is divided into two parts. Part 1 consists of five chapters which introduce and explain basic aspects of Kant's philosophy. Chapter 1 describes "Kant's Pursuit of the Supreme Principle of Morality" in the Groundwork. Cholbi here adopts what he terms a criterial approach to or interpretation of Kant, that is; an interpretation which sees Kant as attempting to sketch the basic criteria a supreme moral principle necessarily must fulfill. Chapters 2 and 3 then zoom in on Kant's own preferred version of the supreme principle of morality, namely the Categorical Imperative (CI). Cholbi helpfully supplements his discussion of the CI with an interesting, and somewhat controversial, account of Kant's (or at least a Kantian) theory of value, which right from the outset goes some way towards countering the well-known critique of the CI for being a purely formal principle. Chapter 4 discusses Kant's notion of dignity using primarily Michael Rosen's recent book on Dignity: Its History and Meaning (Harvard UP 2012) to explain and defend this notion. Chapter 5 provides a (probably too) brief overview of the vexed topic of the relation between freedom, reason and the CI in Kant's theory.
Part 2 of the book consists of three chapters and a brief conclusion. The three main chapters discuss various objections to or apparently problematic features of Kant's moral philosophy. Chapter 6 tackles various well-known criticisms of the CI: the problem of how to identify the proper action description (or the proper maxim), which the CI is supposed to evaluate; the problem of false positives and false negatives; the question of whether the different formulations of the CI really are equivalent, and the absolutism objection. Cholbi here does a lot to counter the most common misinterpretations and misunderstandings of Kant's ethical theory. Chapter 7 discusses three more substantial apparent problems with Kant practical ethics: Kant's views on sex and marriage, on suicide and on non-human animals. Cholbi here acknowledges certain persisting and quite troubling aspects of Kant's explicitly stated views, but argues that Kant nevertheless have something important to teach us on each of these topics.
Chapter 8 finally discusses whether, how and to what extent a Kant's theory can make room for a substantial account of a good moral life as an important and indispensable part of morality. Cholbi formulates this problem as a question of whether Kant's reason-centered ethics can allow for and make sense of the moral significance of sentiments, special obligations and happiness. His answer is that yes, a Kantian moral theory can make room for and sense of these phenomena, but that we occasionally need to go beyond what Kant himself explicitly said and wrote to do so.
Taking a step back from the particulars of the book two aspects of Cholbi's approach t and account of Kant deserves special mention. First of all Cholbi argues, particularly in Chapter 3 and chapter 6, that Kant's ethics is primarily an ethics of maxims, not an ethics of action or principles or duty. The primary object of moral evaluation is neither actions nor principles, but maxims "which express or represent a person's reasons for acting on a given occasion" (p. 152). It is this interpretative move which, in different ways, allows him to respond to a number of the most common objections to the CI, in particular the objections concerning false positives, false negatives and absolutism. This clearly shows the fruitfulness and relevance of this particular approach to Kant's moral philosophy, and highlights the need for more work to be done on this topic.
Secondly, two important aspects of Kant's moral theory are clearly and explicitly absent from Cholbi's book, namely the systematic place of this theory in Kant's overall philosophical system, and the metaphysical underpinnings of the theory in Kant's transcendental idealism. Cholbi himself freely acknowledges that he, as far as possible, has attempted "to present Kant's ethics as a freestanding theory" But he also readily admits that "this complicates the task of understanding Kant's ethics, and there are certain topics (for example, Kant's discussion of freedom of the will) where clams from elsewhere in Kant's philosophy cannot be avoided." (p. 2). In his discussion of Kant's account of freedom of the will in chapter 5, Cholbi thus do briefly refer to and make use of the more metaphysical aspects of Kant's theory. But he also clearly believes that Kant's ethics is better served by staying as far away from metaphysics as possible.
This is of course a widespread and well-established position, especially among analytic Kant scholars. It is also quite understandable why Cholbi wants to stay away from Kant's complex, occasionally perplexing and admittedly highly controversial metaphysical discussions in an introductory text on Kant's ethics. It would however have been nice if he at some point, e.g. at the end of his book, had included a (by all means brief) systematic account of how Kant's ethics fits with and is related to, the rest of Kant's philosophical system; his theory of knowledge; his philosophy of religion, his political philosophy, his anthropological writings and, yes, his metaphysics. There is something important missing from (our understanding of) Kant's ethics if it is not, however briefly, viewed in connection with Kant's system as a systematic whole.
With that said: Cholbi's book is well written, well-structured, clearly argued and touches upon most of the important aspects of Kant's moral philosophy. Cholbi also provides systematically argued responses to some of the most common objections to and criticisms of Kant's ethics, and convincingly shows that and why Kant's moral theory (or at least a distinctively Kantian approach to and understanding of ethics) is still worthy of continued philosophical interest and respect. Both the philosophy student and the advanced Kant-scholar are thus bound to find something of interest and something to discuss and disagree on in Cholbi's book. And that of course is one of the tings which all good introductions should do.
© 2017 Carsten Fogh Nielsen
Carsten Fogh Nielsen