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Anger and Forgiveness"Are You There Alone?"10 Good Questions about Life and DeathA Casebook of Ethical Challenges in NeuropsychologyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to Muslim EthicsA Cooperative SpeciesA Critique of the Moral Defense of VegetarianismA Delicate BalanceA Fragile LifeA Life for a LifeA Life-Centered Approach to BioethicsA Matter of SecurityA Mirror Is for ReflectionA Mirror Is for ReflectionA Natural History of Human MoralityA Philosophical DiseaseA Practical Guide to Clinical Ethics ConsultingA Question of TrustA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Short Stay in SwitzerlandA Tapestry of ValuesA Very Bad WizardA World Without ValuesAction and ResponsibilityAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionActs of ConscienceAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction NeuroethicsAdvance Directives in Mental HealthAfter HarmAftermathAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HealthAgainst MarriageAgainst Moral 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and ScienceCutting to the CoreCyborg CitizenDamaged IdentitiesDeaf Identities in the MakingDeath Is That Man Taking NamesDebating ProcreationDebating Same-Sex MarriageDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecoding the Ethics CodeDefining DifferenceDefining Right and Wrong in Brain ScienceDefining the Beginning and End of LifeDelusions of GenderDementiaDemocracy in What State?Demons of the Modern WorldDescriptions and PrescriptionsDesert and VirtueDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDestructive Trends in Mental HealthDeveloping the VirtuesDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital HemlockDigital SoulDignityDignityDisability BioethicsDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDiscrimination against the Mentally IllDisordered Personalities and CrimeDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDoes Feminism Discriminate against Men?Does Torture Work?Doing HarmDouble Standards in Medical Research in Developing CountriesDown GirlDrugs and JusticeDworkin and His CriticsDying in the Twenty-First CenturyEarly WarningEconomics and Youth ViolenceEmbodied RhetoricsEmerging Conceptual, Ethical and Policy Issues in BionanotechnologyEmotional ReasonEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions in the Moral LifeEmpathyEmpathy and Moral DevelopmentEmpathy and MoralityEmpirical Ethics in PsychiatryEncountering NatureEncountering the Sacred in PsychotherapyEngendering International HealthEnhancing EvolutionEnhancing Human CapacitiesEnoughEros and the GoodErotic InnocenceErotic MoralityEssays on Derek Parfit's On What MattersEssays on Free Will and Moral ResponsibilityEthical Choices in Contemporary MedicineEthical Conflicts in PsychologyEthical Dilemmas in PediatricsEthical Issues in Behavioral ResearchEthical Issues in Dementia CareEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthical Issues in the New GeneticsEthical LifeEthical Reasoning for Mental Health ProfessionalsEthical TheoryEthical WillsEthically Challenged ProfessionsEthicsEthicsEthicsEthics and AnimalsEthics and ScienceEthics and the A PrioriEthics and the Discovery of the UnconsciousEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics at the CinemaEthics at the End of LifeEthics Case Book of the American Psychoanalytic AssociationEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics for EveryoneEthics for PsychologistsEthics for the New MillenniumEthics in CyberspaceEthics in Everyday PlacesEthics in Health CareEthics In Health Services ManagementEthics in Mental Health ResearchEthics in PracticeEthics in PsychiatryEthics in PsychologyEthics in Psychotherapy and CounselingEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEthics, Culture, and PsychiatryEthics, Sexual Orientation, and Choices about ChildrenEvaluating the Science and Ethics of Research on HumansEvilEvil GenesEvil in Modern ThoughtEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolutionary Ethics and Contemporary BiologyEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolved MoralityExperiments in 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About School ViolenceLearning from Baby PLeaving YouLectures on the History of Political PhilosophyLegal and Ethical Aspects of HealthcareLegal Aspects of Mental CapacityLegal ConceptionsLegal InsanityLegalizing ProstitutionLet Them Eat ProzacLevelling the Playing FieldLiberal Education in a Knowledge SocietyLiberal EugenicsLife After FaithLife at the BottomLife, Sex, and IdeasListening to the WhispersLiving ProfessionalismLosing Matt ShepardLostLuckyMad in AmericaMad PrideMadhouseMaking Another World PossibleMaking Babies, Making FamiliesMaking Genes, Making WavesMaking Sense of Freedom and ResponsibilityMalignantMasculinity Studies and Feminist TheoryMeaning and Moral OrderMeaning in LifeMeaning in Life and Why It MattersMeans, Ends, and PersonsMeans, Ends, and PersonsMedical Enhancement and PosthumanityMedical Research for HireMedicalized MasculinitiesMedically Assisted DeathMeditations for the HumanistMelancholia and MoralismMental Health Professionals, Minorities and the 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RightnessMovies and the Moral Adventure of LifeMurder in the InnMy Body PoliticMy Brain Made Me Do ItMy Sister's KeeperMy Sister's KeeperMy WayNano-Bio-EthicsNarrative MedicineNarrative ProsthesisNatural Ethical FactsNatural-Born CybogsNaturalized BioethicsNeither Bad nor MadNeoconservatismNeonatal BioethicsNeurobiology and the Development of Human MoralityNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNew Takes in Film-PhilosophyNew Waves in EthicsNew Waves in MetaethicsNietzsche on Ethics and PoliticsNo Child Left DifferentNo Impact ManNormative EthicsNormativityNothing about us, without us!Oath BetrayedOf War and LawOn ApologyOn Being AuthenticOn EvilOn Human RightsOn The Stigma Of Mental IllnessOn the TakeOn Virtue EthicsOn What MattersOn What We Owe to Each OtherOne ChildOne Nation Under TherapyOne World NowOne World NowOur Bodies, Whose Property?Our Bodies, Whose Property?Our Daily MedsOur Faithfulness to the PastOur Posthuman FutureOut of EdenOut of Its MindOut of the ShadowsOverdosed AmericaOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Studies in Normative EthicsOxford Studies in Normative Ethics, Volume 7Oxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPassionate DeliberationPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perfecting VirtuePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonalities on the PlatePersonhood and Health CarePersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPerspectives On Health And Human RightsPharmaceutical FreedomPharmacracyPharmageddonPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhysician-Assisted DyingPicturing DisabilityPilgrim at Tinker CreekPlaying God?Playing God?Political EmotionsPornlandPowerful MedicinesPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical EthicsPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical RulesPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic NeuroethicsPraise and BlamePreferences and Well-BeingPrimates and PhilosophersPro-Life, Pro-ChoiceProcreation and ParenthoodProfits Before People?Progress in BioethicsProperty in the BodyProzac As a Way of LifeProzac on the CouchPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric EthicsPsychiatry and EmpirePsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychology and Consumer CulturePsychology and LawPsychotropic Drug Prescriber's Survival GuidePublic Health LawPublic Health Law and EthicsPublic PhilosophyPunishing the Mentally IllPunishmentPursuits of WisdomPutting Morality Back Into PoliticsPutting on VirtueQuality of Life and Human DifferenceRaceRadical HopeRadical VirtuesRape Is RapeRe-creating MedicineRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReckoning With HomelessnessReconceiving Medical EthicsRecovery from SchizophreniaRedefining RapeRedesigning HumansReducing the Stigma of Mental IllnessReflections on Ethics and ResponsibilityReflections On How We LiveReframing Disease ContextuallyRefusing CareRefuting Peter Singer's Ethical TheoryRegard for Reason in the Moral MindRelative JusticeRelativism and Human RightsReligion ExplainedReprogeneticsRescuing JeffreyRespecting AnimalsResponsibilityResponsibility and PsychopathyResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility from the MarginsResponsible GeneticsRethinking CommodificationRethinking Informed Consent in BioethicsRethinking Mental Health and DisorderRethinking RapeReturn to ReasonRevolution in PsychologyRightsRights, Democracy, and Fulfillment in the Era of Identity PoliticsRisk and Luck in Medical EthicsRobert NozickRousseau and the Dilemmas of Modernity Rule of Law, Misrule of MenRun, Spot, RunRunning on RitalinSatisficing and MaximizingSchadenfreudeSchizophrenia, Culture, and SubjectivityScience and EthicsScience in the Private InterestScience, Policy, and the Value-Free IdealScience, Seeds and CyborgsScratching the Surface of BioethicsSecular Philosophy and the Religious 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CulpabilityThe Age of CulpabilityThe Aims of Higher EducationThe Almost MoonThe Altruistic BrainThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Forensic PsychiatryThe Animal ManifestoThe Animals' AgendaThe Art of LivingThe Autonomy of MoralityThe Beloved SelfThe Best Things in LifeThe Big FixThe Bioethics ReaderThe Biology and Psychology of Moral AgencyThe Blackwell Guide to Medical EthicsThe Body SilentThe BondThe Book of LifeThe Burden of SympathyThe Cambridge Companion to Virtue EthicsThe Cambridge Companion to Virtue EthicsThe Cambridge Textbook of BioethicsThe Case against Assisted SuicideThe Case Against PerfectionThe Case Against PunishmentThe Case for PerfectionThe Case of Terri SchiavoThe Challenge of Human RightsThe Character GapThe Code for Global EthicsThe Colonization Of Psychic SpaceThe Commercialization of Intimate LifeThe Common ThreadThe Connected SelfThe Constitution of AgencyThe Cow with Ear Tag #1389The Creation of PsychopharmacologyThe Criminal BrainThe Decency 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with ChildrenThieves of VirtueThree Generations, No ImbecilesTimes of Triumph, Times of DoubtTolerance Among The VirtuesTolerance and the Ethical LifeTolerationToxic PsychiatryTrauma, Truth and ReconciliationTreatment Kind and FairTrusting on the EdgeTry to RememberUltimate JudgementUnborn in the USA: Inside the War on AbortionUndermining ScienceUnderstanding AbortionUnderstanding CloningUnderstanding EmotionsUnderstanding EvilUnderstanding Kant's EthicsUnderstanding Moral ObligationUnderstanding Physician-Pharmaceutical Industry InteractionsUnderstanding TerrorismUnderstanding the GenomeUnderstanding the Stigma of Mental IllnessUnderstanding Treatment Without ConsentUnhingedUnprincipled VirtueUnsanctifying Human Life: Essays on EthicsUnspeakable Acts, Ordinary PeopleUp in FlamesUpheavals of ThoughtUsers and Abusers of PsychiatryValue-Free Science?Values and Psychiatric DiagnosisValues in ConflictVegetarianismViolence and Mental DisorderVirtue EthicsVirtue, Rules, and JusticeVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVirtues and Their VicesVoracious Science and Vulnerable AnimalsVulnerability, Autonomy, and Applied EthicsWar Against the WeakWar, Torture and TerrorismWarrior's DishonourWeaknessWelfare and Rational CareWhat are you staring at?What Genes Can't DoWhat Have We DoneWhat Is a Human?What Is Good and WhyWhat Is Good and WhyWhat Is the Good Life?What Price Better Health?What Should I Do?What We Owe to Each OtherWhat Would Aristotle Do?What's Good on TVWhat's Normal?What's Wrong with Children's RightsWhat's Wrong with Homosexuality?What's Wrong With Morality?When Is Discrimination Wrong?Who Holds the Moral High Ground?Who Owns YouWho Qualifies for Rights?Whose America?Whose View of Life?Why Animals MatterWhy Animals MatterWhy Does Inequality Matter?Why Honor MattersWhy I Burned My Book and Other Essays on DisabilityWhy Not Kill Them All?Why Punish? How Much?Why Some Things Should Not Be for SaleWisdom, Intuition and EthicsWithout ConscienceWomen and Borderline Personality DisorderWomen and MadnessWondergenesWould You Kill the Fat Man?Wrestling with Behavioral GeneticsWriting About PatientsYou Must Be DreamingYour Genetic DestinyYour Inner FishYouth Offending and Youth Justice Yuck!
Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and modern Western philosophy. The main area of overlap between these two traditions is Buddhist ethics, so that it is almost indistinguishable from Western secular ethics and in most part, has nothing to do with traditional Buddhist morality. As Owen Flanagan in hisForeword aptly asserts “Buddhism presents a paradox” since, on the one hand, Buddhists are seen in popular imagination as good and having high standards of moral excellence. On the other hand, Buddhism doesn’t theorize ethics in anything like the systematic way that it is theorized in popular western traditions, both secular and sacred. This splendid volume on Buddhist Ethics takes on this paradox and responds to two pressing concerns. One is to understand what exactly the nature of Buddhist ethics is. The second one is to explore what sort of resources for living good human lives Buddhism provides to denizens of Western culture, who are industrialized, rich, democratic peoples.
There are some modern interpretations, which propose extensive parallels between the suggestions for living found in Buddhist texts, with their focus on nibbäna (peaceful state of mind by freeing oneself from desires, and the teleological conception of virtue found in the works of Aristotle in particular, with their focus on eudaemonia. Yet, some others argue that the project of fitting Buddhist ethical thought into Western philosophical categories may be a very limited utility; and this point of view has shifted considerably the focus of investigations. Davis, in this volume, carefully collected papers from the renowned researchers in the field to offer a snapshot of the present state of the investigation into the nature of Buddhist ethics. In order to do this, he organized the book in six parts, starting first with the debate on Buddhist ethics and Western categories and then in the following chapters expanding on the nature of Buddhist ethics with the collection of papers focused on one or another particular problem in understanding Buddhist ethics in the narrow way necessary for rigorous investigation.
The first paper in the part I, written by Damien Keown, who in his landmark monograph in 1992 The Nature of Buddhist Ethics suggested extensive parallels between Buddhist ethics and especially Aristotelian ethics, departs substantially from his earlier project of comparing Buddhists with Aristotelian ethics. İnstead, as the title of his paper “It’s Ethics Jim, but Not as We Know It” suggests, he argues that Buddhist thought lacks the sort of moral theorizing found in Western meta-ethical systems, and consequently it cannot be compared directly to those Western ethical theories. In “The Nature of a Buddhist Path”, B. Finnigan offers a rigorous demonstration of the philosophical complexities that prevent an easy solution to the question of how to fit Buddhist ethics into Western philosophical categories. The last paper in the first part “Buddhist Moral Thought and Western Moral Philosophy” by C. W. Gowans, is about some of the difficulties with virtue-theoretic and consequentialist interpretative approaches. Gowans suggests that Indian Buddhist thinkers are best understood as holding moral theorizing to be mainly unimportant to the practical goals of Buddhist traditions, including living ethically and achieving enlightenment.
Part II focuses on constructing Buddhist ethics by pointing out the contributions inspired by and derived from Buddhist ethics to contemporary concerns. J. Park, in his paper “Zen Buddhism and the Space of Ethics”, develops an approach rooted in the nonduality of the Zen and Huayan traditions of Buddhist thought and proposes that an awareness of the tensions between an ultimate perspective on emptiness and the phenomenal level of difference and distinction can open a fertile space for ethical reflection and moral cultivation. G. Priest also develops an approach that draws out the ethical implications for nonself and emptiness in “”Buddhist Ethics: A Perspective”. C. Coseru, on the other hand, up against these constructive approaches, offers a critique of the modern program of Buddhist neuroethics, with its emphasis on both compassion and empirical paradigms of knowledge.
Rest of the chapters devoted to offer more constructive approaches for Buddhist ethics developed for con temporary cultural context. Part III starts with the examination of concepts of karma and rebirth. Charles Goodman’s contribution to this section on karma and rebirth sets out from the premise that in the context of scientific worldviews, traditional Buddhist conceptions of karma are giving way to new conceptions that focus not on consequences in future lives but rather on psychological consequences in a single life. Ian Westerhoff in “Buddhism Without Reincarnation? Examining the Prospects of a ‘Naturalized’ Buddhism” raises a powerful objection to such naturalistic approaches to Buddhist ethics by arguing that if there is no continuity of min d after the decay of the body, then the most effective way to put an end to one’s suffering would be suicide rather than the development of ethical behavior, concentration and wisdom advocated in Buddhist ethics. Sallie King focuses on how the notion of suffering as karmic desert can be used to rationalize unjust institutions in his paper “The problems and Promise of Karma from a Engaged Buddhist Perspective” by taking a practical approach to the question of karma in the modern social context.
Part IV consists of papers on mindfulness, memory and virtue. Sara McClint in her paper “Ethical Reading and Ethics of Forgetting and Remembering”, offers a rich account on how an ethical reading can impact a reader’s remembrance of the fact that one has forgotten most of the formative actions that have brought one to one’s current situation. Jay Garfield in “Mindfulness and Ethics: Attention, Virtue and Perfection” focuses on training in mindfulness as a central contribution that Buddhist traditions can make to contemporary investigations of moral psychology, and to the field of cognitive science more generally. The last paper, “When You Know for Yourself: Mindfulness, wisdom and Qualities of Heart” written by the editor Jake Davis on this part, brings together two themes in Buddhist ethics: the emphasis on mindfulness as foundational to wisdom and the ethical focus on emotional motivations such as hatred and love that give rise to intention to act.
Part V collects papers on intention and action. Karin Meyers in her rich exegetical work on Vasubandhu’s analysis of intention, demonstrates how Vasubandhu rejects in his own historical context both the overpsychologization of intention that is characteristic of many modern interpretations of Buddhist ethics and also the opposite objective extreme, represented by a Buddhist school that attribute ethical qualities to physical entities. In the following paper “What Do Buddhists Think About Free Will?” Riccardo Repetti argues that Buddhist traditions contain the philosophical resources to enrich the philosophical discussion of free will against some recent theorists that suggest that Buddhist understanding of nonself is opposed to Western notion of free will. In a similar vein, Mark Siderits in his paper “Buddhist Reductionist Action Theory” aims to show how Buddhist analyses of action without an agent might prove a resource for contemporary philosophical theories of action.
The last part is about politics, anger and equanimity. In his contribution, “The Inherent Dignity of Empty Persons”, to Part VI, Christopher Kelley engages Buddhist philosophical approaches to the self with a practical, pressing political issue. He focuses on the apparent contradiction between Dalai Lama’s philosophical views on selflessness and emptiness, and his endorsement of human rights law, and resolves this tension by suggesting that the doctrine of emptiness, as it is employed in Madhyamaka philosophy of the Dalai Lama’s Tibetan Buddhist tradition, can offer a better philosophical basis for conceptions of human rights. Amber Carpenter in her paper “Ethics Without Justice: Eliminating the Roots of Resentment” takes up the relationship of nonself to the political and the emotional issue of justice. Emily Mac Rae’s paper “Equanimity in Relationship: Responding to Moral Ugliness” closes the volume with a very practical analysis of equanimity’s role and value in manifesting the attitudes of friendliness, compassion and symphatetic joy that are central Buddhist values.
This volume offers a rich panoply of ways of approaching the vast and deep set of questions and issues that arise when we explore the nature of Buddhist ethics as well as the relations between Buddhist traditions and Western ethical theories. A Mirror Is For Reflection presents important new research on cutting-edge philosophical and textual topics, including contributions from many of the leading figures in the field. I think this is a very useful collection of essays for the researchers and academicians in philosophy and religious studies. I heartily recommend it as both a valuable tool for classroom use to facilitate discussions for the case for and against the approach, the various ways it might play out, and its possible implications for other issues in philosophy of ethics and Buddhist ethical approaches, and also for initiating further research in related fields.
© 2018 Kamuran Elbeyoğlu
Kamuran Elbeyoğlu (Prof. Dr.), Toros University, School of Business Administration and Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Yenisehir, 33140 Mersin, Turkey.