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Anger and Forgiveness"Are You There Alone?"10 Good Questions about Life and DeathA Casebook of Ethical Challenges in NeuropsychologyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to Muslim EthicsA Cooperative SpeciesA Critique of the Moral Defense of VegetarianismA Delicate BalanceA Fragile LifeA Life for a LifeA Life-Centered Approach to BioethicsA Matter of SecurityA Mirror Is for ReflectionA Mirror Is for ReflectionA Natural History of Human MoralityA Philosophical DiseaseA Practical Guide to Clinical Ethics ConsultingA Question of TrustA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Short Stay in SwitzerlandA Tapestry of ValuesA Very Bad WizardA World Without ValuesAction and ResponsibilityAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionActs of ConscienceAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction NeuroethicsAdvance Directives in Mental HealthAfter HarmAftermathAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HealthAgainst MarriageAgainst Moral ResponsibilityAgency and AnswerabilityAgency and ResponsibilityAgency, Freedom, and Moral ResponsibilityAging, Biotechnology, and the FutureAlbert Schweitzer's Reverence for LifeAlphavilleAltruismAltruismAmerican EugenicsAmerican PsychosisAn American SicknessAn Anthology of Psychiatric EthicsAn Introduction to EthicsAn Introduction to Evolutionary EthicsAn Introduction to Kant's Moral Philosophy Ancient Greek and Roman SlaveryAnd a Time to DieAnimal LessonsAnimal RightsAnimal Welfare in a Changing WorldAnimals Like UsApplied Ethics in Mental Health CareAre Women Human?Arguments about AbortionAristotle on Practical WisdomAristotle's Ethics and Moral ResponsibilityAristotle's WayAssisted Suicide and the Right to DieAutonomyAutonomy and the Challenges to LiberalismAutonomy, Consent and the LawBabies by DesignBackslidingBad PharmaBad SoulsBarriers and BelongingBasic Desert, Reactive Attitudes and Free WillBeauty JunkiesBefore ForgivingBeing AmoralBeing YourselfBending Over BackwardsBending ScienceBernard WilliamsBetter Humans?Better Than WellBeyond BioethicsBeyond ChoiceBeyond GeneticsBeyond HatredBeyond Humanity?Beyond LossBeyond LossBeyond Moral JudgmentBeyond SpeechBeyond the DSM StoryBias in Psychiatric DiagnosisBioethicsBioethicsBioethics and the BrainBioethics at the MoviesBioethics Beyond the HeadlinesBioethics Critically ReconsideredBioethics in a Liberal SocietyBioethics in the ClinicBiomedical EthicsBiomedical EthicsBiomedical EthicsBiomedical EthicsBiomedical Research and BeyondBiosBioscience EthicsBipolar ChildrenBluebirdBodies out of BoundsBodies, Commodities, and BiotechnologiesBody BazaarBoundBoundaries and Boundary Violations in PsychoanalysisBraintrustBrandedBreaking the SilenceBuffy the Vampire Slayer and PhilosophyCapital PunishmentCase Studies in Biomedical Research EthicsChallenging the Stigma of Mental IllnessCharacter and Moral Psychology Character as Moral FictionChild Well-BeingChildrenChildren's RightsChimpanzee RightsChoosing ChildrenChoosing Not to ChooseClinical Dilemmas in PsychotherapyClinical EthicsCloningClose toYouCoercion as CureCoercive Treatment in PsychiatryCognition of Value in Aristotle's EthicsCognitive Disability and Its Challenge to Moral Philosophy Comfortably NumbCommonsense RebellionCommunicative Action and Rational ChoiceCompassionate Moral RealismCompetence, Condemnation, and CommitmentComprehending CareConducting Insanity EvaluationsConfidential RelationshipsConfidentiality and Mental HealthConflict of Interest in the ProfessionsConsuming KidsContemporary Debates In Applied EthicsContemporary Debates in Moral TheoryContemporary Debates in Social PhilosophyContentious IssuesContesting PsychiatryCrazy in AmericaCreating CapabilitiesCreatures Like Us?Crime and CulpabilityCrime, Punishment, and Mental IllnessCriminal Trials and Mental DisordersCritical Perspectives in Public HealthCritical PsychiatryCrueltyCultural Assessment in Clinical PsychiatryCurrent Controversies in BioethicsCurrent Controversies in Values and ScienceCutting to the CoreCyborg CitizenDamaged IdentitiesDeaf Identities in the MakingDeath Is That Man Taking NamesDebating ProcreationDebating Same-Sex MarriageDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecoding the Ethics CodeDefining DifferenceDefining Right and Wrong in Brain ScienceDefining the Beginning and End of LifeDelusions of GenderDementiaDemocracy in What State?Demons of the Modern WorldDescriptions and PrescriptionsDesert and VirtueDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDestructive Trends in Mental HealthDeveloping the VirtuesDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital HemlockDigital SoulDignityDignityDisability BioethicsDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDiscrimination against the Mentally IllDisordered Personalities and CrimeDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDoes Feminism Discriminate against Men?Does Torture Work?Doing HarmDouble Standards in Medical Research in Developing CountriesDown GirlDrugs and JusticeDuty and the BeastDworkin and His CriticsDying in the Twenty-First CenturyEarly WarningEconomics and Youth ViolenceEmbodied RhetoricsEmerging Conceptual, Ethical and Policy Issues in BionanotechnologyEmotional ReasonEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions in the Moral LifeEmpathyEmpathy and Moral DevelopmentEmpathy and MoralityEmpirical Ethics in PsychiatryEncountering NatureEncountering the Sacred in PsychotherapyEngendering International HealthEnhancing EvolutionEnhancing Human CapacitiesEnoughEros and the GoodErotic InnocenceErotic MoralityEssays on Derek Parfit's On What MattersEssays on Free Will and Moral ResponsibilityEthical Choices in Contemporary MedicineEthical Conflicts in PsychologyEthical Dilemmas in PediatricsEthical Issues in Behavioral ResearchEthical Issues in Dementia CareEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthical Issues in the New GeneticsEthical LifeEthical Reasoning for Mental Health ProfessionalsEthical TheoryEthical WillsEthically Challenged ProfessionsEthicsEthicsEthicsEthics and AnimalsEthics and ScienceEthics and the A PrioriEthics and the Discovery of the UnconsciousEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics at the CinemaEthics at the End of LifeEthics Case Book of the American Psychoanalytic AssociationEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics for EveryoneEthics for PsychologistsEthics for the New MillenniumEthics in CyberspaceEthics in Everyday PlacesEthics in Health CareEthics In Health Services ManagementEthics in Mental Health ResearchEthics in PracticeEthics in PsychiatryEthics in PsychologyEthics in Psychotherapy and CounselingEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEthics, Culture, and PsychiatryEthics, Sexual Orientation, and Choices about ChildrenEvaluating the Science and Ethics of Research on HumansEvilEvil GenesEvil in Modern ThoughtEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolutionary Ethics and Contemporary BiologyEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolved MoralityExperiments in EthicsExploding the Gene MythExploiting ChildhoodFacing Human SufferingFact and ValueFacts and ValuesFaking ItFalse-Memory Creation in Children and AdultsFat ShameFatal FreedomFellow CreaturesFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist TheoryFinal ExamFirst Do No HarmFirst, Do No HarmFlashpointFlesh WoundsForced to CareForgivenessForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and ReconciliationForgiveness and RetributionForgiveness is Really StrangeFoucault and the Government of DisabilityFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Forensic Mental Health AssessmentFree WillFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will and Reactive AttitudesFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree?Freedom and ValueFreedom vs. InterventionFriendshipFrom Darwin to HitlerFrom Disgust to HumanityFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Silence to VoiceFrom Valuing to ValueFrontiers of JusticeGender in the MirrorGenetic PoliticsGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetics of Original SinGenetics of Original SinGenocide's AftermathGetting RealGluttonyGood WorkGoodness & AdviceGreedGroups in ConflictGrowing Up GirlGut FeminismHabilitation, Health, and AgencyHandbook for Health Care Ethics CommitteesHandbook of BioethicsHandbook of Children's RightsHandbook of PsychopathyHappinessHappiness and the Good LifeHappiness Is OverratedHard FeelingsHard LuckHardwired BehaviorHarmful ThoughtsHeal & ForgiveHealing PsychiatryHealth Care Ethics for PsychologistsHeterosyncraciesHistorical and Philosophical Perspectives on Biomedical EthicsHoly WarHookedHookedHow Can I Be Trusted?How Fascism WorksHow Propaganda WorksHow to Do Things with Pornography How to Make Opportunity EqualHow Universities Can Help Create a Wiser WorldHow We HopeHow We Think About DementiaHuman BondingHuman Dignity and Assisted DeathHuman Dignity and Assisted DeathHuman EnhancementHuman GoodnessHuman Identity and BioethicsHuman TrialsHumanism, What's That?Humanitarian ReasonHumanityHumanizing MadnessI am Not Sick I Don't Need Help!I Was WrongIdentifying Hyperactive ChildrenIf That Ever Happens to MeImproving Nature?In Defense of FloggingIn Defense of SinIn Love With LifeIn Our Own ImageIn the FamilyIn the Land of the DeafIn the Name of IdentityIn the Wake of 9/11In Two MindsInclusive EthicsInformed Consent in Medical ResearchInnovation in Medical TechnologyInside Assisted LivingInside EthicsIntelligence, Race, and GeneticsIntensive CareInto the Gray ZoneIs Human Nature Obsolete?Is Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Is There a Duty to Die?Is There an Ethicist in the House?Issues in Philosophical CounselingJudging Children As ChildrenJust a DogJust BabiesJust CareJustice for ChildrenJustice for HedgehogsJustice in RobesJustice, Luck, and KnowledgeJustifiable ConductKant on Moral AutonomyKant's Theory of VirtueKids of CharacterKilling McVeighLack of CharacterLack of CharacterLaw and the BrainLearning About School ViolenceLearning from Baby PLeaving YouLectures on the History of Political PhilosophyLegal and Ethical Aspects of HealthcareLegal Aspects of Mental CapacityLegal ConceptionsLegal InsanityLegalizing ProstitutionLet Them Eat ProzacLevelling the Playing FieldLiberal Education in a Knowledge SocietyLiberal EugenicsLife After FaithLife at the BottomLife, Sex, and IdeasListening to the WhispersLiving ProfessionalismLosing Matt ShepardLostLuckyMad in AmericaMad PrideMadhouseMaking Another World PossibleMaking Babies, Making FamiliesMaking Genes, Making WavesMaking Sense of Freedom and ResponsibilityMalignantMasculinity Studies and Feminist TheoryMeaning and Moral OrderMeaning in LifeMeaning in Life and Why It MattersMeans, Ends, and PersonsMeans, Ends, and PersonsMedical Enhancement and PosthumanityMedical Research for HireMedicalized MasculinitiesMedically Assisted DeathMeditations for the HumanistMelancholia and MoralismMental Health Professionals, Minorities and the PoorMental Illness, Medicine and LawMerit, Meaning, and Human BondageMetaethical SubjectivismMill's UtilitarianismMind FieldsMind WarsMind WarsModern Theories of JusticeModernity and TechnologyMoney ShotMonsterMoral Acquaintances and Moral DecisionsMoral BrainsMoral ClarityMoral CultivationMoral Development and RealityMoral Dilemmas in Real LifeMoral DimensionsMoral EntanglementsMoral FailureMoral LiteracyMoral MachinesMoral MindsMoral OriginsMoral Panics, Sex PanicsMoral ParticularismMoral PerceptionMoral PsychologyMoral Psychology: Volume IVMoral RealismMoral RelativismMoral RepairMoral Responsibility and Alternative PossibilitiesMoral Status and Human LifeMoral StealthMoral Theory at the MoviesMoral TribesMoral Value and Human DiversityMoral, Immoral, AmoralMoralismMorality and Self-InterestMorality in a Natural WorldMorality, Moral Luck and ResponsibilityMorals, Rights and Practice in the Human ServicesMorals, Rights and Practice in the Human ServicesMore Than HumanMotive and RightnessMovies and the Moral Adventure of LifeMurder in the InnMy Body PoliticMy Brain Made Me Do ItMy Sister's KeeperMy Sister's KeeperMy WayNakedNano-Bio-EthicsNarrative MedicineNarrative ProsthesisNatural Ethical FactsNatural-Born CybogsNaturalized BioethicsNeither Bad nor MadNeoconservatismNeonatal BioethicsNeurobiology and the Development of Human MoralityNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNew Takes in Film-PhilosophyNew Waves in EthicsNew Waves in MetaethicsNietzsche on Ethics and PoliticsNo Child Left DifferentNo Impact ManNormative EthicsNormativityNothing about us, without us!Oath BetrayedOf War and LawOn AnimalsOn ApologyOn Being AuthenticOn EvilOn Human RightsOn The Stigma Of Mental IllnessOn the TakeOn Virtue EthicsOn What MattersOn What We Owe to Each OtherOne ChildOne Nation Under TherapyOne World NowOne World NowOur Bodies, Whose Property?Our Bodies, Whose Property?Our Daily MedsOur Faithfulness to the PastOur Posthuman FutureOut of EdenOut of Its MindOut of the ShadowsOverdosed AmericaOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Studies in Normative EthicsOxford Studies in Normative Ethics, Volume 7Oxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPassionate DeliberationPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perfecting VirtuePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonalities on the PlatePersonhood and Health CarePersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPerspectives On Health And Human RightsPharmaceutical FreedomPharmacracyPharmageddonPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhysician-Assisted DyingPicturing DisabilityPilgrim at Tinker CreekPlaying God?Playing God?Political EmotionsPornlandPowerful MedicinesPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical EthicsPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical RulesPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic NeuroethicsPraise and BlamePreferences and Well-BeingPrimates and PhilosophersPro-Life, Pro-ChoiceProcreation and ParenthoodProfits Before People?Progress in BioethicsProperty in the BodyProzac As a Way of LifeProzac on the CouchPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric EthicsPsychiatry and EmpirePsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychology and Consumer CulturePsychology and LawPsychotropic Drug Prescriber's Survival GuidePublic Health LawPublic Health Law and EthicsPublic PhilosophyPunishing the Mentally IllPunishmentPursuits of WisdomPutting Morality Back Into PoliticsPutting on VirtueQuality of Life and Human DifferenceRaceRadical HopeRadical VirtuesRape Is RapeRe-creating MedicineRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReckoning With HomelessnessReconceiving Medical EthicsRecovery from SchizophreniaRedefining RapeRedesigning HumansReducing the Stigma of Mental IllnessReflections on Ethics and ResponsibilityReflections On How We LiveReframing Disease ContextuallyRefusing CareRefuting Peter Singer's Ethical TheoryRegard for Reason in the Moral MindRelative JusticeRelativism and Human RightsReligion ExplainedReprogeneticsRescuing JeffreyRespecting AnimalsResponsibilityResponsibility and PsychopathyResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility from the MarginsResponsible GeneticsRethinking CommodificationRethinking Informed Consent in BioethicsRethinking Mental Health and DisorderRethinking RapeReturn to ReasonRevolution in PsychologyRightsRights, Democracy, and Fulfillment in the Era of Identity PoliticsRisk and Luck in Medical EthicsRobert NozickRousseau and the Dilemmas of Modernity Rule of Law, Misrule of MenRun, Spot, RunRunning on RitalinSatisficing and MaximizingSchadenfreudeSchizophrenia, Culture, and SubjectivityScience and EthicsScience in the Private InterestScience, Policy, and the Value-Free IdealScience, Seeds and CyborgsScratching the Surface of BioethicsSecular Philosophy and the Religious TemperamentSeeing the LightSelf-ConstitutionSelf-Made MadnessSelf-Trust and Reproductive AutonomySentimental RulesSex Fiends, Perverts, and PedophilesSex OffendersSex, Family, and the Culture WarsSexual DevianceSexual EthicsSexual PredatorsSexualized BrainsShaping Our SelvesShock TherapyShould I Medicate My Child?ShunnedSick to Death and Not Going to Take It AnymoreSickoSide EffectsSidewalk StoriesSister CitizenSkeptical FeminismSocial Dimensions of Moral ResponsibilitySocial Inclusion of People with Mental IllnessSocial JusticeSociological Perspectives on the New GeneticsSome We Love, Some We Hate, Some We EatSovereign VirtueSpeech MattersSpiral of EntrapmentSplit DecisionsSticks and StonesStories MatterSubhumanSubjectivity and Being SomebodySuffering and VirtueSuffering, Death, and IdentitySuicide ProhibitionSurgery JunkiesSurgically Shaping ChildrenTaking Morality SeriouslyTaming the Troublesome ChildTechnology and the Good Life?TestimonyText and Materials on International Human RightsThe Moral Psychology of AngerThe Age of CulpabilityThe Age of CulpabilityThe Aims of Higher EducationThe Almost MoonThe Altruistic BrainThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Forensic PsychiatryThe Animal ManifestoThe Animals' AgendaThe Art of LivingThe Autonomy of MoralityThe Beloved SelfThe Best Things in LifeThe Big FixThe Bioethics ReaderThe Biology and Psychology of Moral AgencyThe Blackwell Guide to Medical EthicsThe Body SilentThe BondThe Book of LifeThe Burden of SympathyThe Cambridge Companion to Virtue EthicsThe Cambridge Companion to Virtue EthicsThe Cambridge Textbook of BioethicsThe Case against Assisted SuicideThe Case Against PerfectionThe Case Against PunishmentThe Case for PerfectionThe Case of Terri SchiavoThe Challenge of Human RightsThe Character GapThe Code for Global EthicsThe Colonization Of Psychic SpaceThe Commercialization of Intimate LifeThe Common ThreadThe Connected SelfThe Constitution of AgencyThe Cow with Ear Tag #1389The Creation of PsychopharmacologyThe Criminal BrainThe Decency WarsThe Difficult-to-Treat Psychiatric PatientThe Disability PendulumThe Disability Rights Movement: From Charity to ConfrontationThe Domain of ReasonsThe Double-Edged HelixThe Duty to ProtectThe Emotional Construction of MoralsThe End of Ethics in a Technological SocietyThe End of Stigma?The Essentials of New York Mental Health LawThe Ethical BrainThe Ethical Dimensions of the Biological and Health SciencesThe Ethics of BioethicsThe Ethics of Choosing ChildrenThe Ethics of Human EnhancementThe Ethics of ParenthoodThe Ethics of SightseeingThe Ethics of the FamilyThe Ethics of the Family in SenecaThe Ethics of the LieThe Ethics of TransplantsThe Ethics of WarThe Ethics ToolkitThe Evolution of Mental Health LawThe Evolution of MoralityThe FamilyThe Fat Studies ReaderThe Forgiveness ProjectThe Forgotten CreedThe Form of Practical KnowledgeThe Fountain of YouthThe Freedom ParadoxThe Future of Assisted Suicide and 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ChoiceThe Myth of the Moral BrainThe Nature of Moral ResponsibilityThe Nature of NormativityThe New Disability HistoryThe New Genetic MedicineThe New Religious IntoleranceThe Offensive InternetThe Origins of FairnessThe Oxford Handbook of Animal EthicsThe Oxford Handbook of Ethics at the End of LifeThe Oxford Handbook of Food EthicsThe Palgrave Handbook of Practical Animal EthicsThe Perfect BabyThe Philosophical ParentThe Philosophy of NeedThe Philosophy of PornographyThe Philosophy of PsychiatryThe Politics Of LustThe Portable Ethicist for Mental Health Professionals The Power of Religion in the Public SphereThe Price of PerfectionThe Price of TruthThe Problem of PunishmentThe Problem of WarThe Problem of WarThe Prosthetic ImpulseThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe PsychopathThe Purity MythThe Pursuit of PerfectionThe Relevance of Philosophy to LifeThe Right Road to Radical FreedomThe Right to be LovedThe Right to Be ParentsThe Righteous MindThe Root of All EvilThe Routledge Companion to Virtue EthicsThe Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Animal MindsThe Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of EmpathyThe Rules of InsanityThe Second SexismThe Second-Person StandpointThe Silent World of Doctor and PatientThe Sleep of ReasonThe Social Psychology of Good and EvilThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Speed of DarkThe Stem Cell ControversyThe Stem Cell ControversyThe Story of Cruel and UnusualThe Story WithinThe Stubborn System of Moral ResponsibilityThe Suicide TouristThe Terrible GiftThe Theory of OptionsThe Therapy of DesireThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Triple HelixThe Trolley Problem MysteriesThe Trouble with DiversityThe Truth About the Drug CompaniesThe Ugly LawsThe Varieties of Religious ExperienceThe Virtue of Defiance and Psychiatric EngagementThe Virtues of FreedomThe Virtues of HappinessThe Virtuous Life in Greek EthicsThe Virtuous PsychiatristThe Voice of Breast Cancer in Medicine and BioethicsThe War Against BoysThe War for Children's MindsThe Whole ChildThe Woman RacketThe Worldwide Practice of TortureTherapy with ChildrenThieves of VirtueThree Generations, No ImbecilesTimes of Triumph, Times of DoubtTolerance Among The VirtuesTolerance and the Ethical LifeTolerationToxic PsychiatryTrauma, Truth and ReconciliationTreatment Kind and FairTrusting on the EdgeTry to RememberUltimate JudgementUnborn in the USA: Inside the War on AbortionUndermining ScienceUnderstanding AbortionUnderstanding CloningUnderstanding EmotionsUnderstanding EvilUnderstanding Kant's EthicsUnderstanding Moral ObligationUnderstanding Physician-Pharmaceutical Industry InteractionsUnderstanding TerrorismUnderstanding the GenomeUnderstanding the Stigma of Mental IllnessUnderstanding Treatment Without ConsentUnhingedUnprincipled VirtueUnsanctifying Human Life: Essays on EthicsUnspeakable Acts, Ordinary PeopleUp in FlamesUpheavals of ThoughtUsers and Abusers of PsychiatryValue-Free Science?Values and Psychiatric DiagnosisValues in ConflictVegetarianismViolence and Mental DisorderVirtue EthicsVirtue, Rules, and JusticeVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVirtues and Their VicesVoracious Science and Vulnerable AnimalsVulnerability, Autonomy, and Applied EthicsWar Against the WeakWar, Torture and TerrorismWarrior's DishonourWeaknessWelfare and Rational CareWhat are you staring at?What Genes Can't DoWhat Have We DoneWhat Is a Human?What Is Good and WhyWhat Is Good and WhyWhat Is the Good Life?What Price Better Health?What Should I Do?What We Owe to Each OtherWhat Would Aristotle Do?What's Good on TVWhat's Normal?What's Wrong with Children's RightsWhat's Wrong with Homosexuality?What's Wrong With Morality?When Is Discrimination Wrong?Who Holds the Moral High Ground?Who Owns YouWho Qualifies for Rights?Whose America?Whose View of Life?Why Animals MatterWhy Animals MatterWhy Does Inequality Matter?Why Honor MattersWhy I Burned My Book and Other Essays on DisabilityWhy Not Kill Them All?Why Punish? How Much?Why Some Things Should Not Be for SaleWisdom, Intuition and EthicsWithout ConscienceWomen and Borderline Personality DisorderWomen and MadnessWondergenesWould You Kill the Fat Man?Wrestling with Behavioral GeneticsWriting About PatientsYou Must Be DreamingYour Genetic DestinyYour Inner FishYouth Offending and Youth Justice Yuck!
From the successful cloning of Dolly the sheep, to the FDA's approval of BiDil as the first race-specific medication to ongoing discussions concerning the use of gene editing technologies such as "CRISPR," medical innovations during the past couple of decades have raised a number of significant ethical, social and political questions. Should cloning as human reproduction be limited? Is the pursuit of race-based medicine morally acceptable? Would it be a moral failure to abstain from using gene-editing technologies if they are proven safe to use? For Osagie K. Obasogie and Marcy Darnovsky, the editors of Beyond Biopolitics: Toward a New Bioethics, these questions are further complicated by the specific sociopolitical context in which they arise. How do we understand, for instance, the FDA's approval of BiDil alongside the history of race and eugenics in the United States? Addressing these questions requires, on their account, a conceptual framework and approach not found in contemporary bioethics.
To elaborate, for Obasogie and Darnovsky, bioethics currently operates on the basis of principlism. Principlism "provides a common framework by embracing four principles as the foundation of bioethical deliberation: respect for autonomy (antipaternalism, or people should have agency in their decision making), nonmaleficence (do no harm), beneficence (help people), and justice (being thoughtful about the distribution of benefits and burdens)" (5). Obasogie and Darnovsky note that bioethicists have been crucial in rehabilitating trust in the medical community following the revelation of horrific Nazi experiments and the infamous Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, and even more recently in helping medical professionals understand their moral obligations in light of new developments including in vitro fertilization and artificial organisms. Nevertheless, bioethics has three significant limitations: first, because principlism focuses largely on moral encounters between individuals, especially patients and doctors, it is ill-suited for understanding cases wherein complex social dynamics are at play. Second, bioethicists are often embedded in the very institutions they are meant to oversee, thus making them vulnerable to potential conflict of interest or institutional silencing. Third, while bioethics may help in the development of ethical norms for medical practice, without a regulatory mechanism to enforce those norms, "bioethics is largely without teeth in dealing with the deeply profound and transformative social power of many new developments" (6).
In light of these limitations, Obasogie and Darnovsky argue that a new conceptual and practical approach is required – a "new biopolitics" (8). This approach, unlike modern bioethics, "places social justice, human rights, and the public interest at the center of the analysis" (7). While this "new politics" "remains a project in formation," it is meant to be distinct from prior articulations of biopolitics traditionally associated with Michel Foucault (8). Obasogie and Darnovsky note five specific concern that distinguish it from mainstream bioethical approaches: first, it is sensitive to the ways in which commercial and market interest may sway deliberations on the social impacts of emerging biotechnologies. Second, it takes seriously the profound implications that the possibility of widespread gene editing has on the notion of humanity itself. Third, it is concerned with the potential of biotechnologies to reaffirm social preferences and biases. Fourth, it is skeptical of the ability of private corporations or committees to successfully serve the public interest. Finally, fifth, it is concerned with the possibility of a new market-driven eugenics aimed at effectively eliminating undesirable populations.
Now, while this "new biopolitics" is again distinct traditional biopolitics and bioethics, work in this field has already begun. The purpose of Beyond Bioethics: Toward a New Biopolitics, then, is to gather those works into a single collection. As such, all articles published in this volume are either reprinted or excerpted from prior publications. Importantly, however, an author's inclusion in this volume does not indicate that they accept the criticism of traditional bioethics and biopolitics presented by Obasogie and Darnovsky, and/or view their work as aligning with the principles of the "new biopolitics."
Part I and Part II begin by situating the "new biopolitics" within the social, historical and academic context in which it emerges. As such, Part I, "The Biopolitical Critique of Bioethics: Historical Context," concentrates on historical abuses of emerging biotechnologies, demonstrating the significant parallels and linkages between the past and the present, as well as their potential impact on the future. For example, in "Why the Nazis Studied American Race Laws for Inspiration," James Q. Whitman explores the parallels between American miscegenation and segregation law and the Nuremberg Laws enacted the Nazis. Whitman demonstrates that much of the theoretical and legal justifications for the Nazis' harsh antisemitic and racist laws were influenced by American legal structure. Edwin Black further explores this parallel in "Eugenics and the Nazis: The California Connection" by exploring both how the Nazis adopted the practices of forced sterilization used in California; and the relationships between American and Nazi eugenicists.
Part II, "Bioethics and Its Discontent," extends upon Obasogie and Darnovsky's initial criticism of traditional bioethics by pointing towards further limitations of the discipline. Several of the articles here explore the implicit biases inherent in bioethical discourse. For example, in "Disability Approach Toward Bioethics?" Gregor Wolbring examines the tendency within the bioethics literature to equate the notion of 'disability' with that of 'defects,' 'diseases' and 'abnormalities.' In doing so, Wolbring reveals the tension between traditional bioethics and the mainstream disability rights movement that centers these issues as matters of social justice as opposed to medical intervention. Likewise, in "Bioethical Silence and Black Lives," Derek Ayeh contrasts the level of attention given by bioethicists to issues concerning new biotechnologies with their silence on issues of poverty, unemployment and recent police killings of African Americans.
The articles in Part III, "Emerging Biotechnologies, Extreme Ideologies: The Recent Past and Near Future," tackles the controversial issue of using biotechnologies to develop "designer babies" and "posthumans." In addressing these issues, several contributors focus on the impact of these new subjectivities on social justice, equality and the common good. Tom Athanasiou and Marcy Darnovsky begin the section by expressing several concerns about the desire by "biotech boosters" to provide each of us the ability to rewrite the human genome. More specifically they argue that, "Unless we harness our moral intelligence and political will to shape them, they will conform to the existing social divides and to the inadequacies of our democracy, and they will exacerbate both" (161). Nathaniel Comfort in "Can We Cure Genetic Diseases without Slipping into Eugenics?" continues this line of inquiry by providing a historical examination of the US eugenics movement, and relating it to the social and political context in which new gene-editing technologies are being introduced. Although Comfort acknowledges that such technologies hold the potential to eradicate serious genetic disorders, it remains an open question whether or it would produce a "eugenics of personal choice" (176).
Parts IV through VI focus on the commercial and market factors presents in the development of new biotechnologies. Part IV, "Markets, Property and the Body," examines the impact of market forces upon biomedical research. Osagie Obasogie in "Your Body, Your Property" examines a series of court cases wherein the US Supreme Court grants medical institutions the use of biological samples from patients for financial gain. In "Dear Facebook, Please Don't Tell Women to Lean Into Egg Freezing," Jessica Cussins argues that the decision by Facebook and Apple to offer egg freezing as a employee benefits for females is ultimately neither beneficial for women nor a real solution to the problems of sex discrimination in the workplace. As she argues, "What we need are family-friendly workplace policies, not giveaways that will encourage women to undergo invasive procedures in order to squeeze our more work for their beloved company under the guise of 'empowerment'" (227).
Part V, "Patients as Consumers in the Gene Age," critically investigates the promises of 'precision medicine' with the possible social, political and economic perils of its widespread implementation. In particular, several of the scholars argue that the increased use of personalized medicine techniques will only continue to foster a bias towards genetic and biological explanations, while further diminishing the role of social, economic and political factors on the onset of disease. For instance, Karuna Jaggar in "Genetic Testing for All Women? Not a Solution to the Breast Cancer Epidemic" argues that the proposal by Dr. Mary Claire King, the geneticist responsible for discovering the link between the BRCA genes and breast cancer, that all women over thirty should undergo genetic testing "fails as a matter of public health to recognize the significant limitations, and harms, of mass genetic testing in the current health care environment" (256).
Part VI, "Seeking Humanity in Human Subjects Research," focuses on the complex sets of pressure and incentives underlying the use of human subjects in biomedical research. In "Medical Exploitation: Inmates Must Not Become Guinea Pigs Again," Allen Hornblum and Osagie Obasogie begin the section by criticizing the efforts of the Institute of Medicine to reintroduce the use of prison inmates as medical research subjects. Specifically, they argue that, given the circumstances, prison inmates are far from a position to voluntarily choice whether or not to submit to medical experiment, especially if they are incentivized by the possibility of having their sentences reduced. Harriet Washington elaborates upon these themes in "Non-Consenting Adults" wherein she surveys a number of recent examples wherein vulnerable populations are coerced into medical experiments – these example include a waiver given to the US government permitting them to dose millions of troops with experimental anthrax vaccines between 1996 and 2005, a 1996 laws that allows researchers to conduct research on trauma victims without their consent, and Pfizer's nonconsensual research on children in Nigeria.
Part VII and VIII focus specifically on assisted reproductive technologies. To this end, Part VII, "Baby-Making in the Biotech Age" focuses on the fertility industry in the United States. Douglas Pet in "Making Me a Baby as Fast as You Can" examines the range of ethical issues inherent in the role of US based companies serving as brokers between commissioning parties and surrogacy clinics in other countries. Part VIII, "Selecting Traits, Selecting Children," further explores these issues by examining the selection methods and technologies currently used in assisted reproduction, and the ethical and social challenges they present. In "A Baby, Please: Blond, Freckles – Hold the Colic," Gautam Naik examines the controversial case of Fertility Institutes, a Los Angeles-based fertility clinic, that recently announced it will soon launch a preimplantation genetic diagnosis that will allow clients not only the possibility of choosing the sex of their child, but the hair, eye and even skin color.
Part IX, "Reinventing Race in the Gene Age," examines the use of race within contemporary biomedical research. In "Race in a Bottle," Jonathan Khan details the infamous 2005 case of BiDil, the first "race-specific" drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration. In exploring this case, Khan draws attention to the questionable methodology employed by BiDil's developers. Ultimately, he concludes that while there is no valid evidence that BiDil works better on African American compared to Caucasians, its FDA-approval ultimately serves to legitimize both the pursuit the medical and commercial pursuit of race-based medicine. In "The Science and Business of Genetic Ancestry Testing," Bolnick et al. argue that far from a harmless recreational tool, commercial DNA tests help promote the false notion that race is somehow a matter of one's biology, as opposed to society.
Finally, Part X, "Biopolitics and the Future," explores opportunities for the implementation of biopolitical thinking into current and future policies guiding biomedical research. For example, in "Toward Race Impact Assessments," Osagie Obasogie argues that new race impact assessments should be implemented to ensure that any conclusions reached about the scientific validity of race are based on sound evidence, as opposed to social understandings of race.
Overall, Beyond Bioethics: Toward a New Biopolitics, provides a useful contribution to the ongoing discussion concerning emerging biotechnologies and their potential social and political ramifications. By grouping these various articles into a single collection, it manages to give both a name and a direction to a more socially conscious ethical and political framework to the controversial issues posed by developments in genomics. That said, while the development of a social approach to issues raised within the medical field is a worthwhile endeavor, it remains unclear from the volume what exactly differentiates this "new biopolitics" from traditional biopolitics already pursued in multiple disciplines from sociology, anthropology, philosophy and even bioethics. While the volume's introduction makes clear the distinction of biopolitics from bioethics, the differences between biopolitics and "new biopolitics" are less clear. Now, differences may be found – the specific questions that "new biopolitics" is meant to address and even the social and political climate in which it is be conducted differs from its historical antecedent. However, if that constitutes the only differences, then "new biopolitics" seems more akin to a new direction in biopolitics, rather than a field of inquiry "distinct from " "these prior articulations." (8). More analysis, then, is required to both separate "new biopolitics" from traditional biopolitics, as well as to justify the need for it as its own distinct methodology. Nevertheless, given both the limitations of bioethics and the need to remain attentative to the social problems posed by emerging biotechnologies, further work into biopolitics is necessary.
© 2018 Jordan Liz
Jordan Liz is an assistant professor in philosophy at the San José State University.