email page print pageAll Topic Reviews
A New Understanding of Mental Disorders A Theory of Feelings Addictions Memory and the Self"Intimate" Violence against Women1001 Solution-Focused Questions101 Healing Stories101 Things I Wish I'd Known When I Started Using Hypnosis50 Great Myths of Popular Psychology50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a God8 Keys to Body Brain BalanceA Brief History of Modern PsychologyA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Conceptual History of Psychology: Exploring the Tangled Web A Cooperative SpeciesA Guide to Teaching Introductory PsychologyA History of Modern Experimental PsychologyA History of Psychology in AutobiographyA History of Social PsychologyA History of the BrainA History of the MindA Hole in the HeadA Matter of SecurityA Mind of Its OwnA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Place for ConsciousnessA Scientific Search for AltruismA Short Introduction to Promoting Resilience in ChildrenA Social History of PsychologyA Stroll With William JamesA System Architecture Approach to the BrainA Theory of FreedomA Very Bad WizardAbductedAbout FacesAccounts of InnocenceAction, Emotion and WillAdapting MindsAddiction and Self-ControlADHD & MeADHD in AdultsAdieu to GodAdolescence and Body ImageAdult Bipolar DisordersAdvances in Culture and PsychologyAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAffect Regulation, Mentalization, and the Development of SelfAffective MappingAgainst EmpathyAgainst HappinessAges and StagesAll Joy and No FunAll Out!All We Have to FearAlterations of ConsciousnessAmerican Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical NeurosciencesAn Argument for MindAncient Bodies, Modern LivesAnd BreatheAnimal MadnessAnimal Tool BehaviorAnimals in TranslationAnomalous CognitionAping MankindArtificial ConsciousnessAspects of PsychologismAsperger Syndrome and Your ChildAsperger Syndrome, Adolescence, and IdentityAssessment and Treatment of Childhood Problems, Second EditionAssisted Suicide and the Right to DieAttachedAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutism and the Myth of the Person AloneAutopsy of a Suicidal MindBecoming an Effective PsychotherapistBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing No OneBelievingBetween Two WorldsBeyond AppearanceBeyond BlueBeyond BullyingBeyond MadnessBeyond MelancholyBeyond the BrainBeyond the DSM StoryBig DreamsBiofeedback for the BrainBipolar ChildrenBipolar DisorderBipolar KidsBlackwell Handbook of Childhood Cognitive DevelopmentBlind SpotsBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlubberlandblueprintBlushBodiesBody ConsciousnessBody Image, Eating Disorders, and Obesity in YouthBody SenseBody WorkBorderline Personality DisorderBorderline Personality Disorder and the Conversational ModelBorn DigitalBorn to Be GoodBorn Together - Reared ApartBounceBoundaries in Human RelationshipsBounded RationalityBowen Theory's SecretsBozo SapiensBrain and CultureBrain and the GazeBrain Arousal and Information TheoryBrain BugsBrain Change TherapyBrain Circuitry and Signaling in PsychiatryBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-Based Therapy with AdultsBrain-WiseBrainstormBrainstormingBraintrustBrainwashingBrandedBreaking Murphy's LawBright-SidedBuddha's BrainBullying and TeasingBuyologyCan't You Hear Them?CaptureCare of the PsycheCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCerebrum 2007Cerebrum 2010Cerebrum 2015Cerebrum Anthology 2013Changing the SubjectCharacter Strengths and VirtuesCharacter Strengths InterventionsCheating LessonsChild and Adolescent Psychological DisordersChildren’s Dreaming and the Development of Consciousness Chomsky NotebookClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyClinical Psychology in Practice ClosureCognition and PerceptionCognition and the BrainCognitive BiologyCognitive DissonanceCognitive FictionsCognitive Mechanisms of Belief ChangeCognitive PragmaticsCognitive ScienceCognitive ScienceCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Therapy of Anxiety DisordersCognitive Unconscious and Human RationalityCold-Blooded KindnessComing of Age in Second LifeCommunication Issues In Autism And Asperger SyndromeCompassion and Healing in Medicine and SocietyComplementary and Alternative Therapies ResearchComprehending ColumbineConfessions of a SociopathConquering Shame and CodependencyConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the Social BrainConsciousness EmergingConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Self-Consciousness, and the Science of Being HumanConstructing PainConsumer NeuroscienceContemporary Debates in Cognitive ScienceConversations on ConsciousnessConviction of the InnocentCooperation and Its EvolutionCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCredit and BlameCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychologyCritical Thinking About PsychologyCross-Cultural PsychologyCrowdsourcingCrueltyCultural Assessment in Clinical PsychiatryCuriousDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous and Severe Personality DisorderDaniel DennettDaughters of MadnessDeafness In MindDeath and ConsciousnessDeath of a ParentDecomposing the WillDeep Brain StimulationDeep ChinaDefining DifferenceDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions of GenderDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDeparting from DevianceDescartes' BabyDescartes's Changing MindDescribing Inner Experience?Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Destructive EmotionsDevelopment of Geocentric Spatial Language and CognitionDevelopment of PsychopathologyDialogues on DifferenceDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Digital HemlockDirty MindsDisgust and Its DisordersDisorders of VolitionDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Doing without ConceptsDrunk Tank PinkEducating People to Be Emotionally IntelligentEffective IntentionsEffective Writing in PsychologyEffortless AttentionEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbracing MindEmbracing UncertaintyEMDR Therapy and Somatic PsychologyEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotionally InvolvedEmotionsEmotionsEmotions and LifeEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions RevealedEmotions, Aggression, and Morality in ChildrenEmotions, Stress, and HealthEmpathyEnjoymentErotic MoralityEscape Your Own PrisonEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthically Challenged ProfessionsEveryday Mind ReadingEvidence for PsiEvidence-Based Mental Health PracticeEvil MenEvolution and Human BehaviorEvolution and LearningEvolution, Games, and GodEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolutionary Psychology as Maladapted PsychologyExacting BeautyExperiences of DepressionExperimenterExplaining the BrainExplaining the BrainExplorations in Neuroscience, Psychology and ReligionExploring TranssexualismExpression and the InnerExtending Self-Esteem ResearchExtraordinary BeliefsFact and Value in EmotionFaking ItFatigue as a Window to the BrainFavorite Activities for the Teaching of PsychologyFeeling GoodFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFinding Meaning, Facing FearsFitting In Is OverratedFive Constraints on Predicting BehaviorFlourishingFlow: The Psychology of Optimal ExperienceFolk Psychological NarrativesFooling HoudiniForever YoungFormulation in Psychology and PsychotherapyFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Psychological ThoughtFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom EvolvesFrom Axons to IdentityFrom Madness to Mental HealthFrom Neurons to Self-ConsciousnessFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrom Symptom to SynapseFrontiers of ConsciousnessGay, Straight, and the Reason WhyGenerosityGenes, Environment, and PsychopathologyGenetic Nature/CultureGeniusGetting Started with EEG NeurofeedbackGetting Under the SkinGlued to GamesGoing SaneGot Parts?Group GeniusGrowing Up GirlGuilt, Shame, and AnxietyGut ReactionsHallucinationHandbook New Sexuality StudiesHandbook of Closeness and IntimacyHandbook of Critical PsychologyHandbook of Emotion RegulationHandbook of EmotionsHandbook of Personality DisordersHandbook of PsychopathyHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Spatial CognitionHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness at WorkHappiness Is.Happy at LastHard to GetHardwired BehaviorHatredHealing the SplitHidden ResourcesHope and DespairHot ThoughtHot ThoughtHouse and PsychologyHow Animals Affect UsHow Animals GrieveHow Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Doctors ThinkHow Enlightenment Changes Your BrainHow Families Still MatterHow History Made the MindHow Infants Know MindsHow Many Friends Does One Person Need?How People ChangeHow Professors ThinkHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Change Someone You LoveHow We ReasonHow We RememberHughes' Outline of Modern PsychiatryHumanHuman BondingHuman Reasoning and Cognitive ScienceHume’s Moral Philosophy and Contemporary PsychologyHypnotismHysteriaiBrainIdentifying Hyperactive ChildrenIdentifying the MindiDisorderImagination and the Meaningful BrainImitation and the Social MindImpulse Control DisordersImpulsivityIn an Unspoken VoiceIn Defense of SentimentalityIn DoubtIn Search of HappinessIn the Wake of 9/11Individual and Collective Memory ConsolidationInner Experience and NeuroscienceInner PresenceInside the American CoupleIntegrated Behavioral Health CareIntegrating Evolution and DevelopmentIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntellectual DisabilityIntelligenceIntelligence, Destiny, and EducationIntentions and IntentionalityInterdependent MindsInterpreting MindsInto the Minds of MadmenIntoxicating MindsIntrospection VindicatedIntuitionInventing PersonalityInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIs There Anything Good About Men?Issues for Families, Schools and CommunitiesJane Sexes It UpJoint AttentionJoint AttentionJudgment and Decision MakingJust a DogJust BabiesJuvenile-Onset SchizophreniaKarl JaspersKey Thinkers in PsychologyKidding OurselvesKids of CharacterKilling MonstersKnowing EmotionsLack of CharacterLanguage OriginsLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw, Mind and BrainLess Than HumanLet Kids Be KidsLet's Talk About DeathLiving NarrativeLiving with Mild Cognitive ImpairmentLonelinessLooking for SpinozaLossLOT 2Love at Goon ParkMachine ConsciousnessMacrocognitionMade for Each OtherMadnessMadness and Modernism: Insanity in the light of modern art, literature, and thought Making a Good Brain GreatMaking Habits, Breaking HabitsMaking Minds and MadnessMaking Up the MindMale SexualityMan and WomanMan's Search for MeaningMan, Beast, and ZombieManic MindsManlinessMapping the MindMarking the MindMarvelous Learning AnimalMasculinity Studies and Feminist TheoryMeaningMeaning, Mortality, and ChoiceMedical MusesMeditating SelflesslyMeetings with a Remarkable ManMemoryMemory and DreamsMemory and EmotionMemory And UnderstandingMental BiologyMental IllnessMental Time TravelMetacognitionMetacognition and Theory of MindMethods in MindMindMindMind and BrainMind and ConsciousnessMind GamesMind Games:Mind in LifeMind TimeMind to MindMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMindful AngerMindfulnessMindfulnessMindfulness and AcceptanceMindfulness-Based Treatment Approaches: Clinician's Guide to Evidence Base and ApplicationsMinding AnimalsMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds, Brains, and LawMindsightMindworldsMirrors in the BrainMistakes Were Made (But Not by Me)Models of MadnessMoodMoral Development and RealityMoral MindsMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Mothers and OthersMotivation and Cognitive ControlMotivational Interviewing: Preparing People For ChangeMovies and the MindMulticulturalism and the Therapeutic ProcessMultiplicityMuses, Madmen, and ProphetsMy Family AlbumMyths about SuicideNarrative IdentitiesNarrative PsychiatryNarratives in PsychiatryNaturalizing Intention in ActionNature and NarrativeNature Via NurtureNeither Bad nor MadNerveNeurobiology and the Development of Human MoralityNeurochemistry of ConsciousnessNeurodiversityNeuroethicsNeuroLogicNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neuroscience and PhilosophyNo Child Left DifferentNo Two AlikeNot By Genes AloneNot Much Just Chillin'Not So Abnormal PsychologyNurturing the Older Brain and MindOn AnxietyOn Being an Introvert or Highly Sensitive PersonOn Being HumanOn Being MovedOn Deep History and the BrainOn DesireOn KillingOn Nature and LanguageOn PaedophiliaOn PersonalityOn the Frontier of AdulthoodOn the Origins of Cognitive ScienceOn The Stigma Of Mental IllnessOnflowOpen MindsOpening Skinner's BoxOrigin of MindOrigins of PsychopathologyOther MindsOut of Our HeadsOut of the WoodsOvercoming Depersonalization DisorderPanpsychism and the Religious AttitudePanpsychism in the WestParenting and the Child's WorldPassionate EnginesPathologies of the WestPatient-Based Approaches to Cognitive NeurosciencePediatric PsychopharmacologyPeople Types and Tiger StripesPerception & CognitionPerception beyond InferencePerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPersonal Development and Clinical PsychologyPerspectives on ImitationPhantoms in the BrainPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhrenologyPhysical RealizationPhysics in MindPieces of LightPlaying with FirePositive PsychologyPositive PsychologyPostcards from the Brain MuseumPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPoverty and Brain Development During ChildhoodPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical Management of Personality DisorderPractical Management of Personality DisorderPredicative MindsPredictably IrrationalPreference, Belief, and SimilarityPrenatal Testosterone in MindPrivileged AccessProcess-Based CBTProcrastinationPromoting Healthy AttachmentsProust Was a NeuroscientistPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsychological AgencyPsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychological Dimensions of the SelfPsychologists Defying the CrowdPsychologyPsychologyPsychology and Consumer CulturePsychology and LawPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology for ScreenwritersPsychology of Women: A Handbook of Issues and TheoriesPsychology's GhostsPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology's TerritoriesPsychopathologyPsychopathyPsychosis and EmotionPsychotherapy, American Culture, and Social PolicyPutnam CampPutting a Name to ItQuantum Memory PowerQuietRadical DistortionRadical Embodied Cognitive ScienceRadical ExternalismRadical GraceRapeRe-Visioning PsychiatryReal MaterialismReality CheckReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecovery in Mental IllnessRecreative MindsRedirectReducing Adolescent RiskRegulating EmotionsRelational BeingRelational Mental HealthRelational Suicide AssessmentReliability in Cognitive NeuroscienceRemembering HomeRemembering Our ChildhoodResearch Advances in Genetics and GenomicsResearching Children's ExperienceResilience in ChildrenRestoring ResilienceRethinking ADHDRethinking Learning DisabilitiesRethinking Middle YearsRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfRevolution in PsychologyRoadmap to ResilienceRomance and Sex in Adolescence and Emerging AdulthoodSchadenfreudeSchizophrenia RevealedSchizophrenia, Culture, and SubjectivityScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologyScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologySecond NatureSecond NatureSecond That EmotionSecond-order Change in PsychotherapySecrets of the MindSee What I'm SayingSee What I'm SayingSeeing and VisualizingSeeing RedSelf and SocietySelf Comes to MindSelf Control in Society, Mind, and BrainSelf-Awareness Deficits in Psychiatric PatientsSelf-CompassionSelf-Consciousness and 'Split' BrainsSelf-RegulationSelf-Representational Approaches to ConsciousnessSelfless InsightSelvesSerial KillersSex at DawnSex on the BrainSex, Time and PowerSexual Coercion in Primates and HumansSexual DisordersSexual FluiditySexual ReckoningsSexualized BrainsShame and GuiltShatteredSimulating MindsSisyphus's BoulderSleepyheadSNAPSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial Psychology and DiscourseSome We Love, Some We Hate, Some We EatSoul DustSparkSpiral of EntrapmentSplendors and Miseries of the BrainSports Hypnosis in PracticeStanding at Water's EdgeStich and His CriticsStillpowerStop OverreactingStructure and Agency in Everyday LifeStructures of AgencyStuffStumbling on HappinessSubjectivity and SelfhoodSubstance Abuse and EmotionSuicidalSupersizing the MindSweet DreamsSynaptic SelfTales from Both Sides of the BrainTalking Oneself SoberTalking to BabiesTaming the Troublesome ChildTargeting AutismTeaching Problems and the Problems of TeachingTeleological RealismTen Years of Viewing from WithinTestosterone RexThat's DisgustingThe 5 Elements of Effective ThinkingThe Accidental MindThe Age of EmpathyThe Altruism EquationThe Altruistic BrainThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Clinical PsychiatryThe Anatomy of BiasThe Anxious BrainThe Archaeology of MindThe Art and Science of MindfulnessThe Art InstinctThe Art of HypnosisThe Asymmetrical BrainThe Bifurcation of the SelfThe Big Book of ConceptsThe Big DisconnectThe Birth of IntersubjectivityThe Birth of the MindThe Blackwell Handbook of Organizational Learning and Knowledge ManagementThe Blank SlateThe Body Has a Mind of Its OwnThe Bounds of CognitionThe Boy Who Was Raised as a DogThe BrainThe BrainThe Brain and the Meaning of LifeThe Brain Health BookThe Brain SupremacyThe Brain That Changes ItselfThe Brain's Way of HealingThe Brain: Big Bangs, Behaviors, and BeliefsThe Cambridge Handbook of Cognitive ScienceThe Cambridge Handbook of Situated CognitionThe Character of ConsciousnessThe Chemistry Between UsThe Choice EffectThe Clinical Science of Suicide PreventionThe Cognitive Approach to Conscious MachinesThe Cognitive Behavioral Workbook for Anxiety: A Step-By-Step ProgramThe Cognitive NeurosciencesThe Cognitive-Emotional BrainThe College Fear FactorThe Commercialization of Intimate LifeThe Compass of PleasureThe Compassionate ConnectionThe Concepts of ConsciousnessThe Conscious BrainThe Conscious SelfThe Consuming InstinctThe Creating BrainThe Creative BrainThe Crucible of ConsciousnessThe Crucible of ExperienceThe Cure WithinThe Dao of NeuroscienceThe Developing MindThe Developing MindThe Development of PsychopathologyThe Disappearance of the Social in American Social PsychologyThe Dissolution of MindThe Duty to ProtectThe Educated ParentThe Ego TunnelThe Elephant in the RoomThe Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human ExperienceThe Emotional Foundations of PersonalityThe Emotional Journey of the Alzheimer's FamilyThe Encultured BrainThe Encyclopedia of StupidityThe Enduring Self in People with Alzheimer'sThe Epidemiology of SchizophreniaThe Essential DifferenceThe Ethical BrainThe Evolution of BeautyThe Evolution of ChildhoodThe Evolution of CooperationThe Evolution of LanguageThe Evolution of MindThe Evolving BrainThe Executive BrainThe Faces of TerrorismThe Feeling BrainThe Feeling of What HappensThe First IdeaThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Foundations of Cognitive ArchaeologyThe Fundamentalist MindsetThe GapThe Gender TrapThe Geography of BlissThe Gift of ShynessThe Good LifeThe Good LifeThe Happiness HypothesisThe Happiness of PursuitThe Health Psychology HandbookThe Healthy Aging BrainThe Heart of TraumaThe High Price of MaterialismThe History of PsychologyThe Human FaceThe Human SparkThe Hypomanic EdgeThe Imagery DebateThe Immeasurable MindThe Imprinted BrainThe Incredible Shrinking MindThe Innate MindThe Innate MindThe Integrated SelfThe Intentional BrainThe Language of ThoughtThe Languages of the BrainThe Lexicon of Adlerian PsychologyThe Lie DetectorsThe Lives of the BrainThe Lonely AmericanThe Lust for BloodThe Madness of WomenThe Male BrainThe Man Who Lost His LanguageThe Man Who Shocked the WorldThe Man Who Tasted ShapesThe Man Who Wasn't ThereThe Matter of the MindThe Mature MindThe Mean Girl MotiveThe Meaning of EvilThe Meaning of OthersThe Meaning of the BodyThe Measure of MadnessThe Measure of MindThe Medicalization of Everyday LifeThe Mind and the BrainThe Mind in ContextThe Mind of the ChildThe Mind of the HorseThe Mind's EyeThe Mind, the Body and the WorldThe Mind-Gut ConnectionThe Mindful BrainThe Misleading MindThe Moral MindThe Most Dangerous AnimalThe Most Human HumanThe Mother FactorThe Myth of ChoiceThe Myth of Depression as DiseaseThe Myth of Mirror NeuronsThe Myth of Self HelpThe Myth of Self-EsteemThe Myth of the Spoiled ChildThe Nature of the SelfThe Necessity Of MadnessThe Neuro RevolutionThe Neuron and the MindThe Neuropsychology of the UnconsciousThe Neuroscience of Human RelationshipsThe Neuroscience of PsychotherapyThe Neuroscience of Psychotherapy: Healing the Social BrainThe New BrainThe New Science of DreamingThe New Science of the MindThe New UnconsciousThe Normal PersonalityThe Origins of FairnessThe Overflowing BrainThe Oxford Companion to the MindThe Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of MindThe Paradoxical PrimateThe Perfectionist's HandbookThe Peripheral MindThe Phenomenology ReaderThe Philosopher's Secret FireThe Philosophical BabyThe Political MindThe Politics of HappinessThe Positive Side of Negative EmotionsThe Postnational SelfThe Postpartum EffectThe Power of PlayThe Praeger Handbook of TranssexualityThe Present Moment in Psychotherapy and Everyday LifeThe Primate MindThe Prism of GrammarThe Psychobiology of Trauma and Resilience Across the LifespanThe Psychological Construction of EmotionThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of HappinessThe Psychology of LifestyleThe Psychology of Religious FundamentalismThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of SpiritualityThe Psychology of StereotypingThe Psychology of SuperheroesThe Psychophysiology of Self-AwarenessThe Pursuit of PerfectThe Quest for Mental HealthThe Rational ImaginationThe Ravenous BrainThe Reasons of LoveThe Righteous MindThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Routledge Handbook of ConsciousnessThe Science of EvilThe Science of Intimate RelationshipsThe Science of Shame and its Treatment The Second SelfThe Secret History of EmotionThe Secret Lives of BoysThe Self and Its EmotionsThe Self-Sabotage CycleThe Sense of SelfThe Sensitive SelfThe Shape of ThoughtThe Social AnimalThe Social Nature of Mental IllnessThe Social Neuroscience of EmpathyThe Social Psychology of Good and EvilThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Story of Intellectual DisabilityThe Structure of ThinkingThe Survivors ClubThe Talking ApeThe Teenage BrainThe Tell-Tale BrainThe Temperamental ThreadThe Tender CutThe Tending InstinctThe Time ParadoxThe Trauma MythThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trouble with IllnessThe True PathThe Truth About GriefThe Turing TestThe Uncertain SciencesThe Undoing ProjectThe Unhappy ChildThe Upside of IrrationalityThe Varieties of ConsciousnessThe War for Children's MindsThe Well-Tuned BrainThe Wild Girl, Natural Man, and the MonsterThe Winner's BrainThe Wisdom in FeelingThe Woman RacketThe World in My Mind, My Mind in the WorldThe Wow ClimaxThe Yipping TigerThemes, Issues and Debates in PsychologyTheoretical Issues in Psychology: An IntroductionTheory of AddictionTheory of MindThings and PlacesThink CatThink Confident, Be ConfidentThinking about AddictionThinking and SeeingThis Emotional Life: In Search of Ourselves...and HappinessThought and LanguageThought in a Hostile WorldTo Have and To Hurt:Toward an Evolutionary Biology of LanguageToward Replacement Parts for the BrainTrauma and Human ExistenceTrauma, Tragedy, TherapyTreating Attachment DisordersTreating Self-InjuryTreating Self-Injury: A Practical GuideTrue to Our FeelingsTrusting the Subject?Understanding and Treating Borderline Personality DisorderUnderstanding ConsciousnessUnderstanding ParanoiaUnderstanding PeopleUnderstanding TerrorismUnderstanding the BrainUndoing Perpetual StressUnlock the Genius WithinUnsettled MindsUnstrange MindsUnthinkingUnthoughtUs and ThemViolent PartnersVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVision and MindVisual AgnosiaWarrior's DishonourWe Who Are DarkWednesday Is Indigo BlueWelcome to Your BrainWhat Do Women Want?What Dying People WantWhat Have We DoneWhat Intelligence Tests MissWhat Is an Emotion: Classic and Contemporary ReadingsWhat Is Emotion?What is Intelligence?What Is Mental Illness?What Is Thought?What Makes Your Brain Happy and Why You Should Do the Opposite What the Best College Students DoWhat the Dog SawWhat We Know about Emotional IntelligenceWhat We Say MattersWhat's Wrong With Morality?When Boys Become BoysWhen Perfect Isn't Good EnoughWhen the Impossible HappensWhen Walls Become DoorwaysWho's Been Sleeping in Your HeadWho's in Charge?Why Humans Like to CryWhy Love MattersWhy Lyrics LastWhy People CooperateWhy People Die by SuicideWhy Sex Matters: A Darwinian Look at Human BehaviorWhy Smart People Can Be So StupidWhy the Mind is Not a ComputerWhy Us?Why We LieWhy We LoveWhy We SleepWider than the SkyWilliam James at the BoundariesWilling, Wanting, WaitingWittgenstein And PsychologyWomen and Child Sexual AbuseWorking MindsYoga and PsychologyYou Are What You RememberYoung Minds in Social WorldsYour Brain on CubsYour Brain on FoodYour Brain on Food: How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings,Your Brain on YogaYour Child in the BalanceZombies and Consciousness
By its title, David Rakel's The Compassionate Connection: The Healing Power of Empathy and Mindful Listening might seem like another book about empathy and mindfulness. That, however, would be a premature diagnosis, one that would betray a not so careful reading of the book. This book, though, is all about giving care and connecting with others, be it with "an ailing friend or a loved one," with "a patient or client or coworker" (p. 230), or with a "manager" or a "parent" (p.150). If empathy and mindfulness are the essential conditions for connecting with others, then Rakel is writing about how this connection can be compassionate. A compassionate connection is not just a meaningful bond with an Other, but a "therapeutic dance" (p. 183), "[b]oth are transformed" (ibid.).
The book is overall well-written and flows very nicely. Rakel blends the exposition of latest scientific research with personal narratives and thoughts deriving from self-reflecting moments as an MD. The book is divided into two main parts preceded by an introduction and followed by two appendices. The introduction starts boldly: "we are born with an innate and nearly limitless capacity for caring and compassion" (p. ix). Yet, we do not often realize this potential even if our brains are "wired for cooperation and giving" (ibid.). While primarily addressing professional caregivers, Rakel aims to show how everyone can "use the vital yet surprisingly low-tech tool of human connection" (p. x). This low-tech tool has what he calls "healing effect – a person's capacity for self-healing" (p. xii).
Each Part of the book is made up of 5 chapters, each of which are broken down into smaller sections. In the first chapter (Compassion Hastens Healing) of Part one (Our Healing Power), Rakel starts with a self-reflection as an MD. He illustrates how caring is nowadays driven by a quick and easy approach whereby we think that there is "a pill for every ill" (p. 6). He asks a crucial question: "How can caregivers evolve beyond the dangerous 'find it, fix it' pharmaceutically dominated medical culture they live in?" (ibid.). The reply is offered in the following section whereby a claim is advanced that caregivers can become beings of "service," healers rather than helpers, through "integrative medicine" (p. 10). The latter is a holistic approach which "reaffirms the importance of the relationship between practitioner and patient," it treats the whole person, it is "informed by evidence and makes use of all appropriate therapeutic and lifestyle approaches, healthcare and disciplines to achieve optimal health and healing" (pp. 10-11). This approach has two critical implications. On the one hand, it insists that "[n]o matter the technologies or medicines available, the healing visit or therapeutic ritual itself has always been critical in an individual's care" (p. 14). The presence of a practitioner is vital, no computer can supplement it. On the other hand, it is through the practitioner who is present that such a ritual can be initiated so that a connection between practitioner and patient can end up being compassionate; and thus allowing for the self-healing mechanism of the receiver/patient to reach its greatest potential. This ritual does not simply require the bodily presence of the healer but their mindful presence. This means that the caregiver must engage in actively listening to the story of the patient in order to gain insights about their overall historical condition.
Chapter two (Mind and Body Connected) elaborates on the ways one's self-healing process can be activated. The compassionate connection is an active healing process whereas "taking pills, receiving acupuncture, or getting a massage are all passive therapies" (p. 40; emphasis in original). Drug consumption is a short-term solution as the organism adapts to its efficacy. In addition, there "can be long-term harm from overuse of this quick fix" (p. 43). The compassionate connection, however, is an active healing aiming at putting "the mind's capabilities to work in healing" (p. 45). Rakel elaborates on the placebo effect studies which constitute real evidence of this process.
"The Biology of Connection" is dealt with in chapter three. Here, the latest research on mirror neurons is explained. According to the latest findings in neuroscience that Rakel presents, not only the movements of the Other are mirrored in our brain, but also their emotions. Empathy and compassion are associated with our biological capacity to share positive feelings. Empathy is associated with the sharing of positive feelings while emotional contagion is associated with negative feelings. "The good news here is that sensitized mirror neurons can be cultivated and activated to communicate positive feelings" (p. 63). This happens due to the plasticity of the brain. Rakel provides an interesting synthesis of neuroscience and epigenetics to show that while we have a capacity to connect with others and thus share feelings, we can enhance this capacity. "If individuals desire to become good at serving and healing others, they must reinforce these parts of the brain" (p. 70).
Chapter four (Make Health Primary) constitutes an attempt to show how we can move towards activating these parts of the brain. It is an attitude of "salutogenesis," that is, "a health promoting worldview, one that encourages people to develop the appropriate skills and resilience to navigate life's tumult" (p. 83). This requires one to have meaning and purpose. With the latter, with something to aspire to, we can develop positive expectations and thus strengthen the possibility of positive physiological effects. The caregiver who has actively listened and understood the patient can stimulate this process as well. With reference to many relevant cases from his medical experience Rakel admits: "But if I, as a physician, give my patient hope and encourage him to believe in his unlimited potential for health, his body will do all it can to heal itself" (p. 93).
Yet, the good intentions of the caregiver can always go bad, so they need to be mindful about how they are to initiate and carry out this ritual of compassionate connection. "Our biological tools for connection – mirror neurons, oxytocin, brain plasticity, epigenetic influences, and hardwiring – can also, in a sense, betray caregivers and the people they serve" (p. 103). The potential of doing bad – nocebo effect – during this connection is always a possibility. Thus caregivers need to be mindful. This chapter works as an introduction for the second part of the book by describing those attitudes that need to be bracketed away while trying to establish an authentic compassionate connection.
Chapter six (Identify and Free Yourself of Your Biases), as the first chapter of Part two (Make the Connection) deals with this bracketing in great length. It is essential that caregivers realize their own biases that are, more often than not, inconspicuously projected onto their patients with the risk of muting them. In such cases, the diagnosis can be detrimental. Rakel shows that empathy, as a positive connection with the other, might not be authentic but instead a projected set of beliefs and feelings onto another person. Caregivers "run the risk of projecting what they believe onto the other person before they've had the chance to gather all of the information to be of real service" (p. 138). Thus, "to be of service" (p. 140), caregivers must empty the clutter in their mind and have a beginner's mind when attempting to achieve the compassionate connection. Caregivers need to perform a mini "mindful meditation" (p. 153) for an authentic compassionate connection to occur.
Compassionate connection, thus, requires preparation. And this preparation leads to mindfulness. Caregivers must learn to pause and listen, not just hear, what the patients are saying. Listening is active where judgements and prior knowledge must be suspended. Chapter seven engages precisely with this process: "Be Present, on Purpose, without Judgment" (p. 147). To be present means to "drop into the moment with complete presence" (ibid). The latter can only be achieved if the caregivers learn how to pause, "to leave their comfort zone in order to consciously enter the space of the other's needs with a clear and open mind" (p. 149). Rakel takes the time to identify acts that might jeopardize this attitude – like "reflex" (p. 151), being distracted or having a "wandering mind," and "multitasking" (pp. 160-161).
Presence requires that we "Physically Communicate Good Intentions," which is the subject of chapter eight. This can happen verbally but Rakel underscores the importance of non-verbal communication. This is important not only for the patient to understand that the caregiver communicates "I'm fully open to what you have to say" (p. 168), but also for the caregiver to understand whether someone is not at ease, or lying, or not telling the whole story.
It is the authentic story that the caregiver must seek (chapter nine). A compassionate connection requires authentic communication based on dialogue not monologue or duologue – where each person is speaking and hearing each other in turns without being engaged in mindful listening. Authentic communication is a circular process not a linear one (pp. 206-208). This means that pausing is required not only for emptying biases before engaging with the Other, but also during the communication in the form of silence. Pausing for silence means "I'm here, I'm listening; I care. It offers a semblance of connection" (p. 211).
In the final chapter Rakel tries to show that, contrary to what is believed, a compassionate connection does not lead to burnout. Burnout comes from too much empathy, the so-called "empathic distress" (p. 224). With empathy and emotional contagion both positive and negative emotions are mirrored and thus burnout is most likely unavoidable. However, "[c]ompassion is the antidote to empathic distress" (ibid.). When it is really authentic the participants move from burnout to beauty. Compassionate connection means being interconnected (p. 224; 227); both parties benefit in this healing process. Rakel is so convinced of this that he says that whenever compassionate connection takes place "I feel that I should pay my patients instead of them paying me" (p. 235).
While I would wholeheartedly recommend this book to professional caregivers, some critical points are required since it is intended for a wider audience.
As mentioned in the beginning of this review, this book requires time for careful reading to avoid a quick diagnosis – just like the compassionate connection requires investment of time from the caregiver(p. 18; 113; 140; 209). But if I follow Rakel to the letter, this review is already problematic. As a diagnosis, this review would fall short without the presence of Rakel. And what about the presence of Golant, that silent feminine signature which haunts the text but is never presented in the book in her own words?
Despite this double bind, I shall risk some careful thoughts in the present absence of the patient. On the one hand, I rejoice with Rakel's and Golant's attempt to show how every patient is not an object to be treated but a living person with a history. And this history must be accounted for in their treatment. Western medicine, driven by (post-)positivism, has long treated the ailing person as parts without a body, parts which operate mathematically like parts of a machine. Rakel and Golant make a wonderful attempt to bring back the importance of the living body in healthcare. If anything, this is the most crucial contribution of the book. On the other hand, Rakel and Golant present this as though it is a breakthrough finding of modern scientific research; like a "surprising discovery" (p.87). This makes me wonder about the extent to which this approach is authentically integrative. The central thesis of embodied minds and self-healing processes which Rakel and Golant espouse are not new. In this respect, the compassionate connection could have been strengthened with the work of relevant (neuro)phenomenological and psychoanalytic studies in this respect. There seems to be little empathy toward this kind of science – I could only trace a vignette of Jung (p. 121). This is important precisely because the authors proclaim to be working through the integrative paradigm of body and mind which is against Cartesian dualism, yet for them everything happens in the brain! Cartesian dualism (p. 34) is not overcome just because the material brain has supplemented the ideal mind, as if the brain is over and above the rest of the body. Pace the claims on body adaptability on drugs and the chapter on non-verbal communication, it is brains that mirror each other not embodied minds.
A careful reading will reveal another double bind. I rejoice at the attempt of the authors to show that the compassionate connection can be more powerful than medication; I cannot agree more with the courage to admit that medication as passive treatment leads to "long-term harm" (p. 42). The cases they recount of cancer patients must be read by all. Yet, in one of the unnumbered pages of the book we read: "meditation techniques and practices described are not intended as a replacement for medical advice or psychotherapy. Please seek the advice of a qualified physician or therapist if you are experiencing symptoms of emotional or physical illness." Yet, to a certain extent, the way the compassionate connection is described, as a self-healing stimulation which is interpersonal, replaces the practitioner.
Concomitantly, we can ask: To what extent can such a connection between caregiver-patient be purely authentic when it takes place within the western capitalist system of exchange and its logic of profit? No matter the good intentions of Rakel and Golant, I believe that these intentions will go bad in a capitalist system where healing would ultimately have its price – after all, as cynically as it sounds, a compassionate connection could have saved "$1.7 billion in malpractice costs if medical staff and patients had communicated better" (p. 189). I worry that the suggested supplementation of pills with integrative medicine is just a supplementation of one chemical pharmakon with another "low tech" pharmakon with less chemicals. The "retraining" (p. 173) that Rakel and Golant propose is not emptied or devoid of the bias of the capitalist "Western way of thinking" (ibid.), but, perhaps, and to a certain extent, a reshuffling of the logic of capitalism which needs to re-appropriate healing in order to survive the threat of the imminent supplementation of practitioners by computers and medical machines (p. 14). Does Rakel not affirm this when he says: "From my experience, interpersonal healing mediated by the connection is not trickery but a valid and proven modality that modern science is just beginning to capitalize on"? (pp. 50-51; my emphasis). It is this capitalization that is worrying. In such a context, how can caregiver-receiver be "two people vested in the outcome" (p. 140) unconditionally when the receivers are always "clients" and "health consumers" (p. 208)? To use Rakel's and Golant's words, by capitalizing on the compassionate connection or by connecting compassion to capitalism will always risk making the "I'm here, I'm listening; I care" (p. 211) indeed "a semblance of connection" (ibid; my emphasis) rather than an authentic one.
My final worry is about the relation between healing through compassionate connection and death. If the compassionate connection is to take place, then it can only happen when it is authentically grounded on human reality. And this cannot be with an appeal to an unlimited life, but a meaningful one which faces death. Rakel and Golant struggle with death in the entire book. Interestingly, confronting death is largely avoided in the book. This is to be expected since, in the professionalization of health, caregiving must be done in such a way that clients or consumers of health forget about this ultimate potentiality of human reality. The product of health must be sustained and its quality insured for equity and loyalty. But, paradoxically, if the "embodied compassionate presence in the moment" (p. 146) is to take place, death must be dealt with mindfully. Rakel and Golant show this brilliantly in the narrative of a dying cancer patient with their oncologist (ibid.). Could it be a coincidence that this compassionate connection witnessed by Rakel, and which he "will remember for the rest of [his] life" (p. 145) came from a woman oncologist being honest about death and for whom Rakel admits: "I have no idea whether the oncologist practiced meditation" (ibid.)?
© 2018 Iraklis Ioannidis
Iraklis Ioannidis, PhD Candidate in Philosophy,The University of Glasgow