email page print pageAll Topic Reviews
Health Care in America The Happiness of Burnout"Guns Don't Kill People, People Kill People""How Come Boys Get to Keep Their Noses?"17 Lies That Are Holding You Back20 Jazz Funk Greats50 Popular Beliefs That People Think Are TrueA Brief History of the SmileA Child of One's OwnA Citizen Legislature/A People's ParliamentA Clinician's Guide to Legal Issues in PsychotherapyA Colorful History of Popular DelusionsA Cultural History of Modern Science in ChinaA Cursing Brain?A History of Intelligence and "Intellectual Disability"A History of MarriageA History of PsychiatryA Little F'd UpA Loving Approach to Dementia CareA Man's Guide to Healthy AgingA Mind ApartA Mind So RareA Natural History of RapeA Natural History of VisionA Red Heart of MemoriesA Short History of MedicineA Student's Guide to the History And Philosophy of Yoga A Tear is an Intellectual ThingA Therapist's Guide to Understanding Common Medical ProblemsA Universe of ConsciousnessA User's Guide to the BrainA World Full of GodsABC of Eating DisordersABCs to Positive LivingAbnormal Psychology in ContextAbout FaceAccessible Yoga for Every Body DVDActs of ConscienceAdoption Beyond BordersAdvances in Culture and PsychologyAfter HarmAfter the Ecstasy, the LaundryAfter the Globe, Before the WorldAgainst the MachineAging Our WayAging ThoughtfullyAIDS & People with Severe Mental IllnessAkhenatenAl-JununAlgernon, Charlie and IAll About LoveAllergy ReliefAlone TogetherAlpha GirlsAltered EgosAltered StatesAlways On CallAm I Making Myself Clear?Am I Okay?AM/PM YogaAmerica in the FortiesAmerica's JailsAmerican Science Fiction Film and TelevisionAmong the Great ApesAn American ObsessionAn American SicknessAn Anthropologist on MarsAn Illustrated Book of Bad ArgumentsAn Odd Kind of FameAnatomy of an EpidemicAncient Greek and Roman SlaveryAnger, Madness, and the DaimonicAnimal ArchitectsAnimal MadnessAnimal MindsAnimals in TranslationAnother CountryAntimatterAre the Rich Necessary? Updated and Expanded EditionArt and PoliticsArtemis FowlAs Nature Made HimAsylumAsylum on the HillAsylum to ActionAt Liberty to DieAtonement and ForgivenessAttention Deficit DisorderAttitudeAuthentic HappinessBe Very AfraidBeautiful MindsBeauty's NothingBeckett and AnimalsBecoming a DoctorBeing VirtualBelle and Sebastian's If You're Feeling SinisterBest of the Brain from Scientific AmericanBetrayal TraumaBetter Sex Through YogaBeyond AIBeyond GreekBeyond HealthBeyond ReasonBeyond ToleranceBibliotherapyBipolar DisorderBlack Man in a White CoatBlack MassBlind SpotsBlinkBlood and GutsBodies out of BoundsBody Piercing Saved My LifeBorn Standing UpBOSH!Brain LongevityBrain-Based Teaching for All SubjectsBrainchildrenBrainwashingBread Upon the WatersBreaking Murphy's LawBreaking WomenBreathingBrian Eno's Another Green WorldBrief EncountersBritain on the CouchBrothelBuddhism and ScienceBuilding Healthy MindsBullspottingBullying PreventionBurn UnitBuzzC StreetCalling Our Spirits HomeCamp ZCampus Sexual AssaultCan't You Hear Them?Cancer on $5 a Day* *(chemo not included)Cato's TearsCaughtChained to the DeskChickenizing Farms and FoodChild Slaves in the Modern WorldChildren's Learning in a Digital WorldChina on the MindChoices and ConflictChoosing CivilityChronic Fatigue Syndrome (The Facts)Classical Pilates Technique DVDCleopatraClinical Psychopharmacology Made Ridiculously SimpleClosing the AsylumsCognition, Creativity, and BehaviorCognitive Neuroscience of EmotionCollege Inc.Coming of Age in AmericaComing of Age in Ancient GreeceConceptual BlockbustingConcrete ReveriesConducting Insanity EvaluationsConfronting Postmaternal ThinkingConnected, or What It Means to Live in the Network SocietyConsciousnessConsider the LobsterConsuming InnocenceContagiousControlConversations About Psychology and Sexual OrientationCool WomenCorpora in Language Acquisition ResearchCorrect EnglishCorrupted CultureCount Us InCovered in InkCreative AngerCreative Core AbsCreative ThinkeringCreative Writing In Health And Social CareCreatures of AccidentCrime and Punishment in AmericaCritical ConditionCritical Perspectives in Public HealthCritical Psychology: An IntroductionCross-Cultural Topics in PsychologyCrossingCrossing the Unknown SeaCruddyCultural Healing and Belief SystemsCulture and Subjective Well-BeingCustomers and Patrons of the Mad-TradeCyber BullyingCyber-Safe Kids, Cyber-Savvy TeensDance the Chakras Yoga WorkoutDancing After HoursDangerous EmotionsDarwin's Dangerous IdeaDarwin's LegacyDeaf Identities in the MakingDeath in the AirDebunked!DeceptionDecoding DarknessDeep GossipDefenders of the TruthDefining Moments in ScienceDefying DementiaDeinstitutionalization And People With Intellectual DisabilitiesDematerializingDementiaDementia Caregivers Share Their StoriesDementia ReimaginedDemocracy in ChainsDemocracy StrugglesDemons of the Body and MindDemons of the Modern WorldDepression In Later LifeDirty DetailsDiscourse of Twitter and Social MediaDistractedDivine MadnessDMT and the Soul of ProphecyDo-It-Yourself Eye Movement Techniques for Emotional HealingDoes Science Need a Global Language?Doing GoodDoing HarmDon't Believe Everything You ThinkDon't Get Too ComfortableDr. Andrew Weil's Guide to Optimum HealthDr. Andrew Weil's Mindbody ToolkitDreaming and Other Involuntary MentationDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV-TR Case StudiesDuplicityDutiful DaughtersDying for TimeEarthly Bodies, Magical SelvesEastern Body, Western MindEating AnimalsEccentricsEcological MedicineEducating People to Be Emotionally IntelligentEinstein and OppenheimerElectroshockElliott Smith and the Big NothingEmergence and EmbodimentEmergencies in Mental Health PracticeEmotionEmotional Intelligence at WorkEmotions RevealedEncyclopedia of Asylum Therapeutics, 1750-1950sEntwined LivesErotic PassionsEssentials of Cas AssessmentEssentials of Wais-III AssessmentEthics for the New MillenniumEvamarie Pilipuf's Yoga Express DVDEvery Day Yoga for Every Body DVDEveryday GreensEveryday IrrationalityEveryday SimplicityEverything Is MiscellaneousEvolutionEvolution and Human BehaviorEvolution in MindEvolution's RainbowExploring the Edge Realms of ConsciousnessExuberanceEyes of SophiaFalling for ScienceFalse-Memory Creation in Children and AdultsFamilyFamily Desk Reference to Psychology Family MurderFashion and Its Social AgendasFashion, Desire And AnxietyFast, Fresh & GreenFat and FuriousFear and Other Uninvited GuestsFearless ConfessionsFeminist Philosophy And Science FictionFinal ExamFine LinesFixing My GazeFlesh of My FleshFlesh WoundsFlirting With DangerFlow and YinFlying ColorsFocusFood for Thought:Food, Medicine, and the Quest for Good HealthFool Me TwiceFreedom, Fame, Lying, and BetrayalFridaFrom Certainty to UncertaintyFrom Joy Division to New OrderFull Frontal Feminism: A Young Woman's Guide to Why Feminism MattersFull Steam Ahead!Galileo Goes to Jail and Other Myths about Science and ReligionGang of Four's EntertainmentGender and Its Effects on PsychopathologyGender and Mental HealthGeneration DigitalGenetics of Mental DisordersGeniusGenomeGetting a Good Night's SleepGetting Inside Your HeadGetting WastedGilded CityGirl in the CurlGirlfightingGirls Gone MildGirls on the VergeGod and the MultiverseGoing Into TownGood FortuneGood KarmaGood MedicineGood WorkGracefully InsaneGrassroots SpiritualityGreat Psychologists and Their TimeGulpHabeas CorpusHalf a Brain Is EnoughHandbook of AttachmentHappinessHappinessHappiness Is.Hate Crimes in CyberspaceHealingHealing SpacesHealth And the MediaHealth OnlineHearing the Person With DementiaHeavier than HeavenHello from Heaven!HelmholtzHelvetica: A documentary filmHemalayaa's Yoga for Young Bodies DVDHemingway's Second WarHerbs for the MindHere Is New YorkHeroes, Rogues, and LoversHeterophobiaHidden MindsHistory of ShitHistory of SuicideHoly Sh*tHoly WarHooked!Hot Body Cool Mind - Level 1Hot Body Cool Mind: Waking Energy Hot Chocolate for the Mystical LoverHot SpotsHotHouseHouse and PsychologyHow Children Learn the Meanings of WordsHow Doctors ThinkHow Emotions WorkHow History Gets Things WrongHow Not to Get ShotHow Our Lives Become StoriesHow Proust Can Change Your LifeHow Science WorksHow to Be a PatientHow to Build a Robot ArmyHow to Cook Everything VegetarianHow to Do NothingHow to Grow OldHow to Handle a Hard-To-Handle KidHow We AgeHow We Are Changed by WarHumankindHungerHysteria Complicated by EcstasyI Contain MultitudesI Know Who You Are and I Saw What You Did: Social Networks and the Death of PrivacyI of the VortexI Only Say This Because I Love YouI, Little AsylumIdiot AmericaIf Men Could TalkIgnoranceIllness and ImageImagining NumbersImprove Your Writing With NLPIn Bed with MadnessIn Defense of FoodIn Praise of ScienceIn Pursuit of HappinessIn Search of FatimaIn the Line of DutyIn the Shadows of the NetIn Therapy We TrustIndivisible by TwoInsight Yoga with Sarah PowersIntegrative MedicineIntensive CareInternational Perspectives on Reminiscence, Life Review and Life Story WorkInto the Gray ZoneIntroduction to Ashtanga Yoga DVDIntroduction to Qi YogaIntroduction to Yoga DVDInvented KnowledgeInvestigating Digital CrimeIrrationalityIs Shame Necessary?IshtarIt's Up to YouJanis Saffell Beverly Hills YogaJudo with WordsKanye West's My Beautiful Dark Twisted FantasyKids OnlineKilling MonstersKinds of MindsKissing DoorknobsKnowing the Nature of FearKnowledge MonopoliesKundalini Yoga for Beginners & BeyondLandscapes in My MindLaw, Mind and BrainLearning About School ViolenceLearning, Teaching and Education Research in the 21st CenturyLessons Learned on My Way HomeLicentious GothamLies! Lies! Lies!Life CoachingLife MakeoversLimboListening in the Silence, Seeing in the DarkListening to PainListening to the WorldLiteratures of MadnessLittle PeopleLittle Red Riding Hood UncloakedLiving DeeplyLiving Well with Pain and IllnessLiving with ArthritisLiving with SchizophreniaLiving, Thinking, LookingLocking Up Our OwnLoneliness as a Way of LifeLong Shadow of Small GhostsLosing My MindLove and Sex with RobotsLove Your Body, Love Your LifeLove, Sex & TragedyLust in TranslationMad Mary LambMade in AmericaMadhur Jaffrey's World VegetarianMadnessMadness in CivilizationMaidentripMake It CountMake It Fast, Cook It SlowMaking Babies the Hard WayMaking Dying IllegalMaking SpaceMaking the Big LeapMaking Your Mind MatterMale Female EmailMalefemaleMan As The PrayerManaged Care ContractingMandated Reporting of Suspected Child AbuseManic Depression and CreativityManlinessManning UpMapping the MindMarriage ConfidentialMary Pope Osborne's Tales from the OdysseyMaster PassionsMasters of the MindMathematical DoodlingsMatters of SubstanceMean GenesMedia ArgumentationMedia in the Digital AgeMediating MadnessMedical AnthropologyMedicine and Health Care in Early ChristianityMedicine and Philosophy in Classical AntiquityMedieval Writings on Female SpiritualityMemoires 1995Memory, Brain, and BeliefMental Health and Social SpaceMental Health MattersMental Illness in Popular MediaMerchants of DoubtMild Cognitive Impairment and Early Alzheimer's DiseaseMiles to Go for FreedomMillennium GirlsMind in Everyday Life and Cognitive ScienceMind WarsMind, Matter and Quantum MechanicsMindstormsMisconceptionsMissing PiecesMistakes Were Made (But Not by Me)Mollie Katzen's RecipesMom's OK, She Just ForgetsMonsters, Demons and PsychopathsMoody BitchesMoral PanicsMorals Not KnowledgeMore Than MedicineMortificationMothers Who Kill Their ChildrenMusicophiliaMy Bloody Valentine's LovelessMy Life Among the Serial KillersMy Misspent YouthMy Stroke of InsightNakedNaked CityNarratives in PsychiatryNations Have the Right to KillNatureNear Death ExperienceNeurons and NetworksNeuroscience in Science Fiction FilmsNever Home AloneNever Out of SeasonNew Versions of VictimsNew YorkNew York September 11Not a Crime to Be PoorNot by DesignNot Your Mother's LifeNothing to HideNurembergNymphomaniaOath BetrayedObesityObjects of Our DesireObliquityOdd CouplesOf Spirits & MadnessOf Two MindsOld AgeOn BlindnessOn Fact and FraudOn the BrinkOn the Origin of StoriesOn TrailsOne Nation Under TherapyOpening to Love 365 Days a YearOptimizing Teaching and LearningOtherhoodOur Symphony with AnimalsOut of the DustOutliersOutsider ArtOver My HeadOxford Guide to the MindPainParanoia of Everyday LifeParents Do Make a DifferenceParty GirlPassingPassionate VegetarianPathways through PainPeople Like OurselvesPerceptual NeurosciencePersons and ThingsPestos, Tapenades, and SpreadsPhilosophy of MindPhotography and LiteraturePilates for MenPink ThinkPlanning for UncertaintyPoets on ProzacPostcards from the Brain MuseumPosthumanismPotatoes Not ProzacPower HerbsPower Yoga for HappinessPoxPractical ClassicsPractical Plans for Difficult Conversations in MedicinePracticing Feminist Ethics in PsychologyPrader-Willi SyndromePredictably IrrationalPretty in PunkPretty Is What ChangesPreventing Misbehavior in ChildrenPrime Ministers of CanadaPrint Literacy DevelopmentPrison MadnessPrivate Life in New Kingdom EgyptProblems in MindProtecting the GiftProust and the SquidPrudePsyche on the SkinPsychiatryPsychiatry in the New MilleniumPsychiatrylandPsychologyPsychology and the MediaPsychology for ScreenwritersPsychology of Family LawPsychotherapy and ConfidentialityPublic Health LawPunishment in Popular CulturePure Yoga Pilates with Kerry BestwickQuantum ArchetypesQuantum LeapsR.I.P.Race in Contemporary MedicineRacial ParanoiaRaising a Self-StarterRaising AmericaReady for AnythingReady or NotReady or Not, Here Life ComesReal SexReckoning With HomelessnessReclaiming Our ChildrenReclaiming Soul in Health CareRed Lotus YogaRed Meat RepublicReligion ExplainedRemaking a WorldRepublic.com 2.0Rethinking CommodificationRethinking Middle YearsReviving OpheliaReviving the LeftRewarding Specialties for Mental Health CliniciansRick SingsRights, Risk and Restraint-Free Care of Older PeopleRisk and Reasoning in Clinical DiagnosisSabbathSame DifferenceSamuel BeckettSatisfactionSavedScared SickScienceScience and NonbeliefScience in the MarketplaceScience TalkScience WarsScience, Consciousness and Ultimate RealitySecond OpinionsSeeds of HopeSelected Ambient Works Volume IISelf Hypnosis for Cosmic ConsciousnessSelf-Help NationSelf-Help, Inc.Selling the Fountain of YouthSells like Teen SpiritSerious ShoppingSeven Challenges To Change Your Life DVDSex, Mom, and GodSex, Time and PowerSexing the BodySexual Orientation and School PolicySexy FeminismShadow, Self, SpiritShop Class as SoulcraftShrink RapSick to Death and Not Going to Take It AnymoreSimulation and Its DiscontentsSinfully VeganSister CitizenSleeping With Extra-TerrestrialsSlut!Snake Oil ScienceSnoopSo Brilliantly CleverSocial RepresentationsSolar Flow Yoga DVDSold on LanguageSome Kind of GeniusSometimes Madness Is WisdomSorting Things OutSoul Made FleshSounds from the Bell JarSoupsSpace, Place and Mental HealthSpeaking Our MindsSpiritual CrisisSpontaneous HealingStates of MindStatus AnxietyStiffedStill HereStill LivesStrange BehaviorStrategies of Commitment and Other EssaysStrength, Grace, HealingStroke DiariesStumbling on HappinessSun SalutationsSuper Natural CookingSuperhumanSuperstitionSupersurvivorsSurgery JunkiesSwordfishtrombonesSylvia Plath ReadsTalk to HerTalking About RaceTalking Back to PsychiatryTalking Heads' Fear of MusicTalking ScienceTeach Yourself MeditationTeaching OnlineTeaching SexTech GenerationTeen LoveTeenageTextbook of Cultural PsychiatryThanks!The 101 Best Graphic NovelsThe Age of American UnreasonThe Alice Behind WonderlandThe American HotelThe American ParadoxThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Clinical PsychiatryThe Americanization of Social ScienceThe Anatomy of HopeThe Anatomy of MelancholyThe Angelica Home KitchenThe Antibiotic EraThe Ape and the Sushi MasterThe Arc of LoveThe Architecture of MadnessThe Arctic IncidentThe Art of ChoosingThe Art of Exceptional LivingThe Audience EffectThe Bard on the BrainThe Barmaid's BrainThe Beginner's Guide to Healthy EatingThe Better to Eat You WithThe Biotech CenturyThe Birth of PleasureThe Birth of the PillThe Black DeathThe Blackwell Handbook of Organizational Learning and Knowledge ManagementThe Book of the PenisThe Brain That Changes ItselfThe Breathing FieldThe Bridge to HumanityThe Brooklyn Nobody KnowsThe Bully SocietyThe Cafe Brenda CookbookThe Call of the WeirdThe Cambridge Illustrated History of MedicineThe Case against EducationThe Case against EducationThe Case Against SugarThe Childless RevolutionThe Clitoral TruthThe Collected SchizophreniasThe Complete Guide to Herbal MedicinesThe Complete Vegetarian HandbookThe Consolations of PhilosophyThe Contemplative HeartThe Couch and the TreeThe Course of Gay and Lesbian LivesThe Creation of the Modern WorldThe Cult of PharmacologyThe Cultural Origins of Human CognitionThe Culture of FearThe Culture of PunishmentThe Da Vinci DogThe Dark Night of the SoulThe Deadly TruthThe Decency WarsThe Digital MindThe Disobedience Of The Daughter Of The SunThe Diversity DelusionThe Drum That Beats Within UsThe Dynamic NeuronThe Easy Yoga WorkbookThe Emotional BrainThe Emotional Journey of the Alzheimer's FamilyThe Employee Assistance Treatment PlannerThe End of MaterialismThe End of WarThe English and their HistoryThe Enigma of HealthThe Era of ChoiceThe Eternity CubeThe EvangelicalsThe Event of LiteratureThe Evolving WorldThe f WordThe Fabulous ImaginationThe Faces of TerrorismThe Farm Colonies: Caring for New York City's Mentally Ill In Long Island's State HospitalsThe Fat Studies ReaderThe Fate of Early MemoriesThe Female ThingThe Fight Against DoubtThe Final LeapThe Firmament of TimeThe Five Things We Cannot Change ...The ForgettingThe Game of TruthThe Get Healthy, Go Vegan CookbookThe Gift of FearThe Gold Leaf Lady and Other Parapsychological InvestigationsThe Good Enough ChildThe Great BetrayalThe Greatest Experiment Ever Performed on WomenThe Guide for White Women Who Teach Black BoysThe HandThe Handbook of Disability StudiesThe Happiness HypothesisThe Healing Remedies SourcebookThe Health Psychology HandbookThe Healthy KitchenThe Heart of YogaThe Hedgehog's DilemmaThe Hero's JourneyThe History of Rhetoric and the Rhetoric of HistoryThe History of White PeopleThe Homework MythThe Hungry SoulThe Identity CodeThe Immortalization Commission:The Importance of Being LazyThe Indian VegetarianThe Insider's Guide to Mental Health Resources OnlineThe Insider's Guide to Mental Health Resources OnlineThe Insider's Guide to Mental Health Resources OnlineThe Insider's Guide to Mental Health Resources OnlineThe Intelligibility of NatureThe Interdisciplinary Science of ConsumptionThe Intuitive WriterThe Invisible PlagueThe Irreducible Needs of ChildrenThe Irritable Male SyndromeThe Jewel Tree of TibetThe Joy of MeditatingThe Language ImperativeThe Language Of YogaThe Language PoliceThe Language WarsThe Last PhysicianThe Last Self-Help Book You'll Ever NeedThe Law Is a White DogThe Lie DetectorsThe Limits of the SelfThe Little Book of Healthy TeasThe Little Book of HeartbreakThe Little Soy BookThe Little Yoga BookThe Lives and Loves of Daisy and Violet HiltonThe Lives of AnimalsThe Lolita EffectThe Lonely PatientThe Loss of Self: A Family Resource for the Care of Alzheimer's Disease and Related DisordersThe Lucifer EffectThe Lucifer PrincipleThe Madness of Adam and EveThe Madwoman in the AtticThe Magic of RealityThe Making of Dr. PhilThe Manual of EpictetusThe Marketplace of IdeasThe Mature MindThe Measure of Our DaysThe Meat Lover's Meatless CookbookThe Medical AdvisorThe Medicalization of SocietyThe Metaphysical ClubThe Mind's PastThe Misunderstood GeneThe MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive SciencesThe Monster WithinThe Mood CureThe Moral Intelligence of ChildrenThe Mystery of Mary RogersThe Myth of Freedom and the Way of MeditationThe Nature FixThe New BrainThe New Cancer SurvivorsThe NineThe Nordic Theory of EverythingThe Norm ChroniclesThe Normal OneThe Obesity EpidemicThe Omnivorous MindThe Orchid ThiefThe Origin and Evolution of CulturesThe Origin of AnxietiesThe Oxford Book of Modern Science WritingThe Oxford Illustrated History of the WorldThe Pain AntidoteThe Paradox of ChoiceThe Paradox of SleepThe Paranoia SwitchThe Passion PlanThe Pastoral Counseling Treatment PlannerThe PatchThe Patient as Agent of Health and Health CareThe PDR Family Guide to Natural Medicines & Healing TherapiesThe Physics of ConsciousnessThe PlaceboThe Placebo Effect and HealthThe Playful BrainThe Pocket Life CoachThe Portfolio and the DiagramThe Power of FocusThe Power of Full EngagementThe Praeger Handbook of Learning and the BrainThe Private Life of the BrainThe Professor and the MadmanThe Psychoanalytic MysticThe Psychology of Religion and CopingThe Psychology Of The InternetThe Psychotherapy Documentation PrimerThe Quantum UniverseThe Quarter-Acre FarmThe Race for ConsciousnessThe Real Rules for GirlsThe Red DevilThe Republican BrainThe Richer SexThe Rise and Fall of Classical GreeceThe Rise of Mental Health NursingThe Roman Search for WisdomThe Root of All EvilThe Routledge Companion to Landscape StudiesThe Same Stuff as StarsThe Savage CityThe Science of Good and EvilThe Science of Optimism and HopeThe Scientific AttitudeThe Scientist In The CribThe Seat of the SoulThe Second SelfThe Secret History of DreamingThe Secret Lives of GirlsThe Secret World of Doing NothingThe Seven Sins of MemoryThe ShakeressThe ShallowsThe Social Psychology of StigmaThe Sociology of PhilosophiesThe Sociopath Next DoorThe Soul Knows No BarsThe Spa DeckThe Spiritual Anatomy of EmotionThe Split MindThe Star ThrowerThe Story Is TrueThe Storytelling AnimalThe Strange Case of Hellish NellThe Symmetry of GodThe Talking CureThe Thing You Think You Cannot DoThe Thorn NecklaceThe Three CulturesThe Three Failures of CreationismThe Toxic ConsumerThe Triumph of NarrativeThe True PathThe Truth About AnimalsThe Truth About Chronic PainThe UndertakingThe Volitional BrainThe Wages of SinThe War Against BoysThe Way of StretchingThe Way We Eat NowThe Weblog HandbookThe Weight of the NationThe Why CaféThe Wild Ass’s SkinThe Will to Live and Other MysteriesThe Wisdom of FrugalityThe Wisdom of PsychopathsThe Wisdom of Your DreamsThe Words We Live ByThe World of CaffeineThe Worldwide Practice of TortureThe Worst-Case Scenario Survival HandbookThe Wow ClimaxTheaters of MadnessTheatre and AnimalsTheories of Scientific MethodTherapeutic LandscapesTheraScribe 4.0Think CatThink SmartThinking for a ChangeThinking With AnimalsThrough Deaf EyesToo Big to FailTooning InTop ChefTortured SubjectsTotal AstangaTotal PilatesTotally WiredTowards a Science of Consciousness IIITrain Your Brain to Get RichTransforming MadnessTraumatic PastsTreating People WellTreatment and Rehabilitation of Severe Mental IllnessTreatment Kind and FairTribal ScienceTrick or TreatmentTrusting DoctorsTry to RememberTutoring as a Successful BusinessTwelve Examples of IllusionTwinsUnder the Medical GazeUnderstanding and Treating Violent Psychiatric PatientsUnderstanding Child MolestersUnderstanding FitnessUnforgettableUnholy MadnessUnscientific AmericaUnspeakable Acts, Ordinary PeopleUnto OthersUp From DragonsUrban Tourism and Urban ChangeUseful BodiesValues in ConflictVarieties of Anomalous ExperienceVegan ExpressVegan Recipes from the Middle EastVegetarian Turkish CookingVegetarianoVertigo VisionsVictorian Popularizers of ScienceViniyoga Therapy for the Low Back, Sacrum and HipsViolence Against WomenVoices Of Alzheimer'sVoices of CaregivingVoices of MadnessVoluntary SimplicityWaking Up to What You DoWalkingWalking a Literary LabyrinthWall: A World DividedWarWays of HearingWays of KnowingWays of KnowingWe Shall Be No MoreWe Shall Not Be MovedWe've Got BlogWellbeingWhat Emotions Really AreWhat I Learned in Medical SchoolWhat in the World Are Your Kids Doing Online?What Makes Us Think?What Nietzsche Really SaidWhat Our Children Teach UsWhat Science Offers the HumanitiesWhat Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and LiteracyWhat's Holding You Back? What's So Wrong with Being Absolutely RightWhen a Family Member Has DementiaWhen Experiments TravelWhen Good Thinking Goes BadWhen History Is a NightmareWhen Johnny and Jane Come Marching HomeWhen Mothers KillWhen Sex Goes to SchoolWhen Someone You Know Is Living in a Dementia Care CommunityWhen Things Fall ApartWhere Biology Meets PsychologyWhere Good Ideas Come FromWhere is the Mango Princess?Wherever You Go, There You AreWhile They SleptWhispers from the EastWhite Privilege UnmaskedWhite RageWho Rules in ScienceWhy Are We Attracted to Sad Music?Why Does E=mc2?Why Don't Students Like SchoolWhy God Won't Go AwayWhy Have Kids?Will They Ever Trust Us Again?WisdomWise Mind, Open MindWitch Beliefs and Witch Trials in the Middle AgesWitchcrazeWith Their EyesWithin ReasonWomanWomen and Mental IllnessWorking With Emotional IntelligenceWriting in FlowYogaYoga & Pilates Workouts for DummiesYoga Beauty BodyYoga for EveryoneYoga for People Who Can't Be Bothered to Do ItYoga for Regular GuysYoga for Regular Guys DVDYoga In BedYoga on DemandYoga SanctuaryYoga SculptYoga ShaktiYoga To Go's Yoga Quick Fixes DVDYogalosophyYou Are Not Your IllnessYou'd Be So Pretty If . . .Your Miracle BrainZaitounZen Encounters with LonelinessZen-Brain Reflections
Do not waste your time reading America's Jails, which is yet account of a privileged white outsider speaking for and over (and thus, silencing) the voices of the incarcerated under the ruse of protecting them. The book written by Derek Jeffreys, a market-minded professor of humanistic studies and religion at the University of Wisconsin, Green Bay, epitomizes a phenomenon described by Cole (2012) as the "White Industrial Savior Complex," which, as he writes, is "not about justice" but "about having a big emotional experience that validates privilege." Who thought this was a good idea?
Given the history of privileged white outsiders claiming the "truth" of marginalized lives better than marginalized people themselves—and the exercises of power which such claims have enabled—the author's choice to center himself is reprehensible. For me, everything indefensible about this story gets crystallized in the overwhelmingly inappropriate narrative this text tells—all the voices of the incarcerated are all appropriated and falsified by a white cis-hetero male academic outsider—while their identities, experiences, views, fears, and yearns are screamingly absent from the book and the framing.
Jeffreys has one set of attitudes toward incarcerated people in theory, and a very different practical relationship to actual prisoners in his book. Reading the cover against the grain, I scramble around for the worst words I can find to describe a book that literally begins with the promise of "[h]ighlighting the experiences of inmates themselves [in order] to shift public perception and understanding of jail inmates to center their inherent dignity and help eliminate the stigma attached to their incarceration" and apply all that to the author who would write a book, ultimately, that would insist we look away from them as the real victims of a terrible reality and instead use them as philosophical "tools"—tropes, caricatures, and anecdotes—to fluff up a privileged "intellectual" discourse armed to perpetuate the logic of white supremacy by dignifying some salvific savior figure (typically the police, the reader themselves, and almost always Jeffreys himself as well) against the oppressed.
Part of fighting for truth is paying close attention to quality of method and the constructions of arguments—evidence, form, and logic. In this review, I will demonstrate some of the ways this book functions as a colossally exploitative, philosophically hollow, and willfully ignorant "pseudo argument" rooted in only minimal truth claims and references to reality in order to craft shockingly simplistic solutions for a massively complicated political-economic-military problem.
It may be too much to insist that this project is a fascist disinformation campaign motivated by the author's repugnant evangelical religious beliefs and "Right on Crime" conservative politics with a direct investment, literally, in funding new jail project, namely those that allocate money to private Christian-centered faith-based initiatives, but that's what I'm most comfortable calling it. (These comments are distilled from extensive notes published in Swartz 2019).
From the beginning, the concerns that actually motivate the narrative are deeply and fundamentally very clear: Jeffreys wants to burnish the public perception and reputation of the police and prison guards, who he sees as a the real victims "in what has become known as mass incarceration" (p. 10). Right off the bat, then, this project lodges itself deep in the realm of mythical dehumanizing spectacle and confines itself to that narrow interpretative capacity, when Jeffreys insists on presenting police and prison guards as the new Troops™ in urgent need of appreciation against a manipulative smear campaign waged by the media who demonize them in popular television shows and films about jails. The argument is that such depictions persist in our public imagination with negative results, tapping into our into our fear of the "Other," so that whenever we learn of new accounts of disturbing jail abuses, our knee-jerk impulse is to demonize them. The best way for Jeffreys to express this desire is to frame it in common-sense and intellectual-term negative terms: by resisting the impulse to stigmatize the "many" good cops. Such framing is enabled when Jeffreys invokes the term "marginalized" as a way to "refer to those whom the jail targets," while simultaneously (and inexplicably) expanding its definition "in a moral and nonmoral sense to include a variety of people" to both "those who commit terrible crimes and evil acts that endanger others," as well as "those whom a community finds (with or without good reason) problematic, different, risky, or annoying" (p. 5).
In his own words:
"Undoubtedly, the U.S. penal system contains no shortage of abusive personnel: corrupt judges, power-hungry sheriffs, pandering prosecutors, and violent and abusive correctional officers. However, I resist the temptation to demonize those working in corrections. Corrections officers have very difficult jobs, and on a daily basis deal with troubled and violent people. I have met many corrections personnel who struggle to make positive changes in a broken criminal justice system. In this book, I will feature people who accomplish remarkable things in horrible circumstances." (Emphasis added).
Now, there are several things to say about the above passage, but let's start with claim itself: Jeffreys' point is so sharp that it becomes narrow, and there's a begged question that holds together everything as follows: What popular television shows and movies has he been watching of late? He doesn't say, but a basic investigation suggests that police are routinely portrayed as noble, risk-taking, selfless, altruistic people who sacrifice themselves for the good of the community and are constantly put in harm's way by evil or crazy criminals. Indeed, television and movies are drowning in military worship, sexism, racial stereotypes, jingoism, and police propaganda. As for the widespread demonization of cops by the public? A Gallup poll in late 2017 found that 56 percent of Americans rate the honesty and ethical standards of cops as high or very high, an approval rating comparable to high school teachers and dentists—hardly your typical villains. Only 12 percent of respondents had low or very low opinions of police honesty. And this is not a reflection, for the most part, of people's actual interactions with police. It's the reflection of how television dramas and local news specifically portray cops (Norman 2017).
Beneath the astounding irrationality of Jeffreys' project is the fact that these kind of white savior hero fantasies are easy to indulge and that they find such a quick and easy purchase in white minds (which is to say, minds that insist on being white by taking something like this seriously). Yet, to discount the very narrative techniques for which this book was (allegedly) reviewed, edited, and published as a non-fictional "alternative criminology" text by a reputable academic press; even garnering such ebullient praise from two scholars who called it "groundbreaking" and a "[p]owerful condemnation of America's jail system" is to show how these qualities might actually make Jeffreys the exception that proves the more generally racist rule.
Which brings me to my second point: the rhetorical tics and modes of prose and discursive that allow Jeffreys to set the terms for his framework. As it turns out, Jeffreys is a virtuoso at evincing a short-term awareness to potential linkages with larger systems and structures, only to immediately reterritorialize around the non-political solutions and the savior implementing them. That is, to center the experiences of exceptional cops and prison staff, Jeffreys uses a neat rhetorical double-move that allows him to feign agreement with a larger reality of pervasive and systematic state-sanctioned abuse and violence towards the incarcerated by briefly acknowledging it only to ultimately deny it. It's a self-contradiction best handled by crafting a caesura between the real abusive state expressed in the negative (undoubtedly he understands that there are no shortage of abusive personnel) with "the many corrections personnel who struggle to make changes in a broken criminal justice system." The result is the illusion of a compelling sounding claim proffered by someone who appears to be carefully and intelligently thinking things through and considering both sides while quietly (and quickly) relegating the very real physical and psychological violence against the incarcerated to the realm of consumable spectacle by dispossessing its political and moral demand. The result allows Jeffreys to effectively hide away the actual suffering and brutality occurring within these torture chambers everyday (and outside on the street) under the assumption that such violence is overexaggerated and perpetrated by subset of individual rogue cops. While this tactic comes dressed in a veneer of concern and moral parity that's a nothing more than a performative way to pathologize criminality and victim-blame. It also has no basis in reality.
Indeed, the elements that define the book have evolved by now into a unique and inimitable style, one well-suited to an "post-racial" era seeking a condensed, comfortable, feel-good, even fun, account of societal carcerality. In this sense, this book almost immediately identifies itself as a hit among a wider (and whiter) audience of policy makers and public alike, particularly in a political environment favoring privatization. A close reading of this book reveals not only the author's deep reluctance to challenge the existing system. Jeffreys focuses on jail as "thing"—a structural site of incarceration delinked from the historical conditions that produced it or for which it serves as useful. Now, I am not questioning this book on the grounds of historical accuracy because if you wanted historical accuracy, you would not read this book at all. The way Jeffreys deals with anti-black and anti-poor gendered racism is the same way he deals with all of his other absolute negations: acknowledging it so he can dismiss it entirely. That is, Jeffreys is careful not to dismiss race entirely as a factor driving hyper-incarceration, and to drive this home, he invokes a mild academic characterization of disproportionality and his own "non-racist" credentials. Still, by relegating race to the periphery, he can effectively ignore it.
"African Americans are incarcerated at disproportionate levels throughout the United States, often because of policies going back decades. For example, my home state of Wisconsin incarcerates a higher proportion of African Americans than almost any state in the union. Throughout this book, I will highlight how race affects jail life, but will not make it central to my analysis. Instead, I will highlight the dignity of the person, and how our penal system degrades and damages it" (p. 4).
There's a lot to unpack here. First, consider the second-half of the first statement: "often because of policies going back decades." That "often" is doing major ideological work as it reflects a common talking point in our impoverished national discourse about the criminal justice system: the refusal to believe that race is always playing role. Rather, police violence results from a series of bad individual choices by the victim, never situational terms, allowing anti-racism to be dismissed as nothing but a moral panic: an unfair accusation or an unhelpful diversion from a presumed bigger picture.
This is important. Missing from this narrative are any attempts to explain the bad behavior of prisoners incarcerated by reference to their situated context – poverty, race, gender identity, coercion, and so on. Rather, the author attributes their bad acts to their inner lives and motivations – their (lack of) character. According to Jeffreys, "free choice" compels them to act badly, not situational terms. However, this gets completely turned on its head when the author and his cops friends are the ones committing bad acts: as we learned earlier, their behavior is always explained in situational terms—"the character and culture of the institution…[g]roup pressures, horrible conditions, job insecurity, and other factors that constrain choice in penal settings" (p. 153). Throughout the book, he worships "conscientious corrections officers" and "dedicated" and "committed" prison staff who, according to him, "strive to respect the dignity of inmates" but "confront a Herculean task" working with "a profoundly disturbing group of people" in such "a toxic environment of constant distrust" that takes a huge "moral and personal toll" on their individual lives (pp. 28-29; pp. 152-153).
Get the distinction? When correctional guards and cops do bad things it's because of the circumstances they face – the conditions in the jails including the alleged disgusting bodily waste of inmates themselves. But when those living in jails do bad things—choose to mutilate their own bodies via self-harm, refuse to take their medications, routinely damage property, and engage in "inmate-on-inmate and staff violence"–it is never the result of their circumstance (anti-black racism, homophobia, transphobia, poverty, sexual abuse, neglect, or any combination thereof), nor is it an acceptable act of self-defense against the widespread and constant violence directed at them; rather, it's a matter of their bad individual character.
When Jeffreys commits a logical error this glaring—and when he rests a good chunk of his worldview on the error—it's hard to escape the conclusion that something deeply pernicious and ideological is biasing the author's cognition. Which is to say, Jeffreys has written a book where the most victimized and vulnerable are rhetorically erased and do not exist. There is not a single sympathetic voice for prisoners in this 225-page book that claims to be for and about them. For Jeffreys, the "good" prisoner is a non-problem and a non-person. But worse, where the incarcerated individual is acknowledged to exist at all, they are encapsulated in a series of offensive stereotypes which render them variously evil, passive, dangerous, violent, crazy, or simply unwitting that serve either to repeat his conclusions back to him or to as a negative object. Their knowledge—subjugated and marginalized—would have provided an alternative much-needed truth to the authors' dissembling definition of penal reality.
For Jeffreys, (what is taken to be) reality is an ersatz account of an essential jail experience that begins with himself and is much more in service of the experience than it is to external facts and context. The substance for this book, as it were, is based on two special access jail tours of Chicago's Cook County, in 2013 and 2014, where, as an "authorized visitor" (p. 15) of the warden, Jeffreys' privilege and mobility to "stumble," by chance, in and out of events, "to describe some of the conditions that inmates experience" (p. 16); which is certainly a far cry from the "full understanding of the jail experience from the inmate's perspective" we were promised on the cover. And only eight pages later, this interpretive framework narrows into the ever sharper terms of "a snapshot" (p. 24), of what he witnessed, as representative of jail, as it "really" is. It's a research approach that sufficiently indexes the way this book wants to make the author both the master of spectacle and the primary subject of sympathy (by evoking consequential contempt and crass instrumentalization for those who are vulnerable enough to be used). Jeffreys is the interpretive guide to a colonized underworld with whom a specifically white "we", the privileged and largely white audience, can identify. Sharing his perspective with the reader, he makes the space knowable and digestible. Thus, the reader's identification with Jeffreys gives them a safe passage and allows them to act as comprehending voyeurs.
Jeffreys claims that this is first and foremost a "philosophically sophisticated perspective of phenomenology" (p. 175), which is certainly a bunch of words. In this book, Jeffreys proposes an ontological shift, or a new orientation toward "old values" that mirror the American and Puritanical tradition by tying an ill-defined, ideal concept of "human dignity," defined by a capacity for autonomy, reason, and self-transcendence, to a symbolic notion of stigma as a "spoiled identity" (a la Goffman), to claim that "negative affective responses" such as disgust (and its kin: concept and fear) directly dehumanize the currently and formerly incarcerated. What are the objects "we" find disgusting? Jeffreys insists that the degrading aesthetics and the horrific sanitary conditions of jail combined with the corporeal decay of prisoners and the "fact" that "we find vices and crimes disgusting" means that disgust is a "natural" emotion with high morally relevance for the context. In a complete collapse of political ethics, Jeffreys introduces the ableist concept of "value blindness," defined simply as "the incapacity to recognize the centrality of a value" (p. 100) to claim that "disgust and contempt lead some staff to abuse inmates" (p. 100).
It's a disgusting argument made all the more so by the discursive ease with which Jeffreys can invoke a central notion of stigma to reinforce his white savior status by positioning himself from the lofty height of an intellectual whose authority allows him to cast moral judgements against an abject Other who is always an implicitly racialized, sexually deviant criminal. To do this, Jeffreys adopts the very normative ideal perspective that actively constructs and produces stigma—[e]very American male—who, according to Goffman (1963), is "young, married, white, urban, northern, heterosexual, Protestant father, college educated, fully employed, of good complexion, weight and height, and a recent record in sports" (p. 128). To be clear, if a person's life is only valuable insofar as those in power can be separated from their bodies to highlight someone else's experience while the same incarcerated remain degraded, then this "value" is actually violence. In Jeffreys telling:
"Degrading conditions within jails often invoke only further disgust. When jails allow people to live in cells with barely functioning toilets, they create revolting conditions. When authorities refuse to offer medical intake examinations, inmates may import diseases with outward symptoms that elicit disgust. When officials fail to provide psychotropic medications to those who need it, inmates may decompress, and fail to clean themselves. When cells swarm with insects and rodents that find their way into food, staff members can hardly contain their disgust" (p. 110).
Let's linger over these words for if there's any poetry to this odious monstrosity of a book, this is a wonderful example of it: the words that don't quite, can't quite, say what they really mean, and yet somehow still do. When jails allow people to live in cells. When cells swarm with insects and rodents. Jeffreys sounds as if he is narrating germs in a petri dish.
This isn't just a badly written book (though, good lord, it is that); this is a book that is disgustingly willing to place the burden of indignity on the bodies of victims, and then call it "growth" or "transcendence" (or whatever) when their abusers finally come around to seeing them as people who possess goodness and individual value. Be patient. Wait for people to change. Serve as an object lesson. As far as I'm concerned, this is all a ludicrous load of ideology. Certainly if people are capable, then can also be accountable.
A final general criticism troubles the gospel of this book's messianic evidence. From his own account, Jeffreys' entire project is shaped not by carefully considered research design but by his relationships with veteran prison guards who, he writes, "acknowledge that negative emotions can blind them to the dignity of the inmates" and "have convinced me of the significance of free choice in jails and prisons" (p. 152). Foremost, opinions and gut theories require empirical support. How Jeffreys' personal experience and the opinions and statements of the police are worth anything of value in this conversation is beyond me. It should be obvious that any explanation of institutional change that hangs on official claims of the police themselves is always inadequate, even if—and this is a crucial caveat—they are honestly conveying what they think they are doing and why. What we know objectively is that they lie all the time. Did anyone at New York University Press insist upon support or verification for these claims?
[Narrator: They didn't].
Cole, Teju. 2012. "The White-Savior Industrial Complex." The Atlantic, March 21. https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2012/03/the-white-savior-industrial-complex/254843/. Accessed February 9, 2019.
Goffman, Erving. 1963. Stigma: Notes on the Management of a Spoiled Identity. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Norman, Jim. 2017. "Confidence in Police Back at Historical Average." Gallup, June 10. https://news.gallup.com/poll/213869/confidence-police-back-historical-average.aspx. Accessed February 9, 2018.
Swartz, Anna. 2019. "Notes for a Review of America's Jails by Derek Jeffreys. [Blog post]. http://annaswartz.com/2019/01/notes-for-a-review-of-americas-jails/. Accessed February 9, 2019.
© 2019 Anna K. Swartz
Anna K. Swartz, Independent Researcher