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A Theory of Feelings Anger and Forgiveness Philosophizing Madness from Nietzsche to Derrida"My Madness Saved Me"10 Good Questions about Life and Death12 Modern Philosophers50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a GodA Cabinet of Philosophical CuriositiesA Case for IronyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to Buddhist PhilosophyA Companion to FoucaultA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to HumeA Companion to KantA Companion to Phenomenology and ExistentialismA Companion to PragmatismA Companion to the Philosophy of ActionA Companion to the Philosophy of BiologyA Companion to the Philosophy of LiteratureA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Critical Overview of Biological FunctionsA Critique of Naturalistic Philosophies of MindA Cursing Brain?A Decent LifeA Delicate BalanceA Farewell to AlmsA Fragile LifeA Frightening LoveA Future for PresentismA Guide to the Good LifeA History of PsychiatryA History of the MindA Life Worth LivingA Manual of Experimental PhilosophyA Map of the MindA Metaphysics of PsychopathologyA Mind So RareA Minimal LibertarianismA Natural History of Human MoralityA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Natural History of VisionA Parliament of MindsA Philosopher Looks at The Sense of HumorA Philosophical DiseaseA Philosophy for the Science of Well-BeingA Philosophy of BoredomA Philosophy of Cinematic ArtA Philosophy of CultureA Philosophy of EmptinessA Philosophy of FearA Philosophy of PainA Physicalist ManifestoA Place for ConsciousnessA Question of TrustA Research Agenda for DSM-VA Revolution of the MindA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Stroll With William JamesA Tapestry of ValuesA Tear is an Intellectual ThingA Theory of FreedomA Theory of Jerks and Other Philosophical MisadventuresA Thousand MachinesA Universe of ConsciousnessA Very Bad WizardA Very Bad Wizard: Morality Behind the CurtainA Virtue EpistemologyA World Full of GodsA World Without ValuesAbout FaceAbout the Beginning of the Hermeneutics of the SelfAction and ResponsibilityAction in ContextAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionAction, Contemplation, and HappinessAction, Emotion and WillAdam SmithAdaptive DynamicsAddictionAddictionAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction and Self-ControlAddiction Is a ChoiceAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAftermathAfterwarAgainst AdaptationAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HappinessAgainst HealthAgainst MarriageAgency and ActionAgency and AnswerabilityAgency and EmbodimentAgency and ResponsibilityAgency, Freedom, and Moral ResponsibilityAl-JununAlain BadiouAlain BadiouAlasdair MacIntyreAlien Landscapes?Altered EgosAmbivalenceAmbivalenceAn Anthology of Psychiatric EthicsAn Ethics for TodayAn Intellectual History of CannibalismAn Interpretation of DesireAn Introduction to EthicsAn Introduction to Kant's Moral Philosophy An Introduction to Philosophy of EducationAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of PsychologyAn Introductory Philosophy of MedicineAn Odd Kind of FameAnalytic FreudAnalytic Philosophy in AmericaAncient AngerAncient Models of MindAncient Philosophy of the SelfAngerAnimal LessonsAnimal MindsAnimals Like UsAnnihilationAnother PlanetAnswers for AristotleAnti-ExternalismAnti-Individualism and KnowledgeAntigone’s ClaimAntipsychiatryAre We Hardwired?Are Women Human?Arguing about DisabilityArguing About Human NatureAristotle and the Philosophy of FriendshipAristotle on Practical WisdomAristotle's ChildrenAristotle's Ethics and Moral ResponsibilityAristotle's WayAristotle, Emotions, and EducationArt & MoralityArt After Conceptual ArtArt in Three DimensionsArt, Self and KnowledgeArtificial ConsciousnessArtificial HappinessAspects of PsychologismAsylum to ActionAt the Existentialist CaféAtonement and ForgivenessAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutobiography as PhilosophyAutonomyAutonomy and Mental DisorderAutonomy and the Challenges to LiberalismBabies by DesignBackslidingBadiouBadiou's DeleuzeBadiou, Balibar, Ranciere: Rethinking EmancipationBare Facts And Naked TruthsBasic Desert, Reactive Attitudes and Free WillBattlestar Galactica and PhilosophyBe Like the FoxBeautyBecoming a SubjectBecoming HumanBefore ConsciousnessBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing AmoralBeing HumanBeing Mentally Ill: A Sociological Theory Being No OneBeing Realistic about ReasonsBeing ReducedBeing YourselfBelief's Own EthicsBending Over BackwardsBerlin Childhood around 1900Bernard WilliamsBertrand RussellBest ExplanationsBetter than BothBetter Than WellBetween Two WorldsBeyond HealthBeyond Hegel and NietzscheBeyond KuhnBeyond LossBeyond MelancholyBeyond Moral JudgmentBeyond PostmodernismBeyond ReductionBeyond SchizophreniaBeyond the DSM StoryBioethicsBioethics and the BrainBioethics in the ClinicBiological Complexity and Integrative PluralismBiology Is TechnologyBiosBipolar ExpeditionsBlackwell Companion to the Philosophy of EducationBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlues - Philosophy for EveryoneBlushBob Dylan and PhilosophyBody ConsciousnessBody Image And Body SchemaBody ImagesBody LanguageBody MattersBody WorkBody-Subjects and Disordered MindsBoundBoundaries of the MindBoyleBrain Evolution and CognitionBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-WiseBrainchildrenBrains, Buddhas, and BelievingBrainstormingBrave New WorldsBreakdown of WillBrief Child Therapy Homework PlannerBrief Inquiry into the Meaning of Sin and FaithBrief Therapy Homework PlannerBritain on the CouchBritish Idealism and the Concept of the SelfBrute RationalityBuffy the Vampire Slayer and PhilosophyBut Is It Art?Camus and SartreCan Animals Be Persons?Cartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCarving Nature at Its JointsCase Studies in Biomedical Research EthicsCassandra's DaughterCategories We Live ByCato's TearsCausation and CounterfactualsCauses, Laws, and Free WillChanging Conceptions of the Child from the Renaissance to Post-ModernityChanging the SubjectChaosophyCharacter and Moral Psychology Character as Moral FictionCharles DarwinCharles S. Peirce's PhenomenologyCherishmentChildhood and the Philosophy of EducationChildrenChildren, Families, and Health Care Decision MakingChoices and ConflictChoosing Not to ChooseChristmas - Philosophy for EveryoneCinema, Philosophy, BergmanCinematic MythmakingCity and Soul in Plato's RepublicClassifying MadnessClear and Queer ThinkingClinical EthicsClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyCodependent ForevermoreCoffee - Philosophy for EveryoneCognition and the BrainCognition of Value in Aristotle's EthicsCognition Through Understanding: Self-Knowledge, Interlocution, Reasoning, ReflectionCognitive BiologyCognitive FictionsCognitive Neuroscience of EmotionCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Systems and the Extended Mind Cognitive Theories of Mental IllnessCoherence in Thought and ActionCollected Papers, Volume 1Collected Papers, Volume 2College SexComedy IncarnateCommitmentCommunicative Action and Rational ChoiceCompassionate Moral RealismCompetence, Condemnation, and CommitmentConcealment And ExposureConcepts and Causes in the Philosophy of DiseaseConceptual Analysis and Philosophical NaturalismConceptual Art and PaintingConceptual Issues in Evolutionary BiologyConfessionsConfucianismConnected, or What It Means to Live in the Network SocietyConquest of AbundanceConscience and ConvenienceConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Fundamental RealityConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the SelfConsciousness EmergingConsciousness EvolvingConsciousness ExplainedConsciousness in ActionConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Color, and ContentConsole and ClassifyConstructing the WorldConstructive AnalysisContemporary Debates In Applied EthicsContemporary Debates in Moral TheoryContemporary Debates in Philosophy of BiologyContemporary Debates in Philosophy of MindContemporary Debates in Political PhilosophyContemporary Debates in Social PhilosophyContemporary Perspectives on Natural LawContested Knowledge: Social Theory TodayContesting PsychiatryContext and the AttitudesContinental Philosophy of ScienceControlControlling Our DestiniesConversations About Psychology and Sexual OrientationCopernicus, Darwin and FreudCrazy for YouCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCreating ConsilienceCreating HysteriaCreating Mental IllnessCreating Scientific ConceptsCreating the American JunkieCreation, Rationality and AutonomyCreatures Like Us?Crime and CulpabilityCrime, Punishment, and Mental IllnessCrimes of ReasonCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychiatryCritical PsychologyCritical ResistanceCritical Thinking About PsychologyCritical VisionsCross and KhoraCruel CompassionCTRL [SPACE]Cultural Psychology of the SelfCultural Theory: An IntroductionCulture and Psychiatric DiagnosisCulture and Subjective Well-BeingCulture of DeathCultures of NeurastheniaCurious EmotionsCurrent Controversies in Experimental PhilosophyCurrent Controversies in Values and ScienceCustom and Reason in HumeCustomers and Patrons of the Mad-TradeCutting God in Half - And Putting the Pieces Together AgainCylons in AmericaDamaged IdentitiesDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous EmotionsDaniel DennettDaniel DennettDark AgesDarwin and DesignDarwin's Dangerous IdeaDarwin's LegacyDarwin, God and the Meaning of LifeDarwinian PsychiatryDarwinian ReductionismDarwinizing CultureDating: Philosophy for EveryoneDeathDeathDeath and CharacterDeath and CompassionDeath and the AfterlifeDebating DesignDebating HumanismDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecomposing the WillDeconstructing PsychotherapyDeconstruction and DemocracyDeeper Than DarwinDeeper than ReasonDefending Science - within ReasonDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDegrees of BeliefDeleuze and the Concepts of CinemaDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions and BeliefsDelusions and Other Irrational BeliefsDelusions and the Madness of the MassesDementiaDemons, Dreamers, and MadmenDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDennett’s PhilosophyDepression Is a ChoiceDepression, Emotion and the SelfDepthDerrida, Deleuze, PsychoanalysisDescartesDescartes and the Passionate MindDescartes' CogitoDescartes's Changing MindDescartes's Concept of MindDescribing Inner Experience?Descriptions and PrescriptionsDesembodied Spirits and Deanimated Bodies Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Desire and AffectDesire, Love, and IdentityDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDeveloping the VirtuesDiagnosing the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersDialectics of the SelfDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital SoulDimensional Models of Personality DisordersDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDisjunctivismDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDispatches from the Freud WarsDisrupted LivesDistractionDisturbed ConsciousnessDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Do We Still Need Doctors?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Does the Woman Exist?Doing PhilosophyDoing without ConceptsDon't be FooledDon't Believe Everything You ThinkDonald DavidsonDonald Davidson on Truth, Meaning, and the MentalDoubting Darwin?Down GirlDreaming and Other Involuntary MentationDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV-TR CasebookDworkin and His CriticsDying to KnowDynamics in ActionDysthymia and the Spectrum of Chronic DepressionsEccentricsEducational MetamorphosesEffective IntentionsElbow Room: The Varieties of Free Will Worth WantingEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbodied RhetoricsEmbodied Selves and Divided MindsEmbryos under the MicroscopeEmergencies in Mental Health PracticeEmerging Conceptual, Ethical and Policy Issues in BionanotechnologyEmotionEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion and PsycheEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotional ReasonEmotional ReasonEmotional TruthEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions, Value, and AgencyEmpathyEmpathy and AgencyEmpathy and Moral DevelopmentEmpathy and MoralityEmpathy in the Context of PhilosophyEmpirical Ethics in PsychiatryEnactivist InterventionsEnchanted LoomsEngaging BuddhismEngineering the Human GermlineEnjoymentEnvyEpicureanismEpistemic LuckEpistemologyEpistemology and EmotionsEpistemology and the Psychology of Human JudgmentEros and the GoodErotic MoralityEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssays in the Metaphysics of Mind Essays on Derek Parfit's On What MattersEssays on Free Will and Moral ResponsibilityEssays on Nonconceptual ContentEssays on Philosophical CounselingEssays on Reference, Language, and MindEssays on the Concept of Mind in Early-Modern PhilosophyEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEsssential Philosophy of PsychiatryEternal Sunshine of the Spotless MindEthical Conflicts in PsychologyEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthical Issues in Human CloningEthical TheoryEthicsEthicsEthics and the A PrioriEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics and Values in PsychotherapyEthics Beyond the LimitsEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics in Plain EnglishEthics in PracticeEthics in Psychiatric ResearchEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEuropean Review of Philosophy. Vol. 5Everyday IrrationalityEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolutionEvolution and the Human MindEvolution's RainbowEvolutionary Origins of MoralityEvolutionary PsychologyExamined LifeExamined LivesExistential AmericaExistentialismExistentialism and Romantic LoveExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental Philosophy, Rationalism, and NaturalismExperiments in EthicsExplaining ConsciousnessExplaining the BrainExplaining the Computational MindExplanatory PluralismExploding the Gene MythExploring HappinessExploring the SelfExpression and the InnerExpressions of JudgmentExtraordinary Science and PsychiatryFaces of IntentionFact and ValueFact and Value in EmotionFacts and ValuesFacts, Values, and NormsFads and Fallacies in the Social SciencesFaith and Wisdom in ScienceFatherhoodFear of KnowledgeFearless SpeechFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFeelings of BeingFellow CreaturesFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminism and Philosophy of ScienceFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist Interpretations of Rene DescartesFeminist TheoryField Notes from ElsewhereFinding Consciousness in the BrainFingerprints of GodFlesh in the Age of ReasonFolk Psychological NarrativesFolk Psychology Re-AssessedForces of HabitForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and RetributionFoucault 2.0Foucault and PhilosophyFoucault NowFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Ethical Practice, Research, and Teaching in PsychologyFour Views on Free WillFrank Ramsey (1903-1930)Free WillFree WillFree WillFree WillFree Will and Action ExplanationFree Will and LuckFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree: Why Science Hasn't Disproved Free WillFreedomFreedom and DeterminismFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom and ResponsibiltyFreedom and ValueFreedom EvolvesFreedom RegainedFreedom vs. InterventionFreedom, Fame, Lying, and BetrayalFreudFreud and the Question of PseudoscienceFreud As PhilosopherFreud's AnswerFreud, the Reluctant PhilosopherFriedrich NietzscheFrom Chance to ChoiceFrom Clinic to ClassroomFrom Complexity to LifeFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Knowledge to Wisdom: A Revolution for Science and the HumanitiesFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrom Valuing to ValueFrontiers of ConsciousnessFrontiers of JusticeFurnishing the MindGalileo in PittsburghGenderGender and Mental HealthGender in the MirrorGender TroubleGenesGenes, Women, EqualityGenetic Nature/CultureGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetic SecretsGenocide's AftermathGenomes and What to Make of ThemGerman Idealism and the JewGerman PhilosophyGetting HookedGilles DeleuzeGlobal PhilosophyGluttonyGod and Phenomenal ConsciousnessGoffman's LegacyGoing Amiss in Experimental ResearchGoodness & AdviceGrassroots SpiritualityGrave MattersGrave MattersGreedGreek Models of Mind and SelfGut ReactionsHabilitation, Health, and AgencyHabits of MindHallucinationHandbook of BioethicsHandbook of EmotionsHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness and EducationHappiness and the Good LifeHappiness Is OverratedHappiness, Death, and the Remainder of LifeHard LuckHarmful ThoughtsHaving the World in ViewHealing PsychiatryHealing the Soul in the Age of the BrainHealth, Illness and DiseaseHealth, Science, and Ordinary LanguageHegelHeidegger and a Metaphysics of FeelingHeidegger, Metaphysics and the Univocity of BeingHellenistic PhilosophyHermann von Helmholtz's MechanismHermeneutics As PoliticsHeterophobiaHeterosyncraciesHeuristics and BiasesHeuristics and the LawHidden ResourcesHidden SelvesHiding from HumanityHigh Art LiteHistorical OntologyHistory of Psychiatry and Medical PsychologyHistory, Historicity And ScienceHobbesHomosexualitiesHope and Dread in PsychoanalysisHot ThoughtHow Can I Be Trusted?How Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Children Learn the Meanings of WordsHow Could Conscious Experiences Affect Brains?How Do We Know Who We Are?How Emotions WorkHow Emotions WorkHow History Made the MindHow Images ThinkHow is Nature Possible?How Propaganda WorksHow Science WorksHow Scientific Practices MatterHow Scientists Explain DiseaseHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Be a StoicHow to Make Opportunity EqualHow to Solve the Mind-Body Problemhow to stop timeHow to Think More About SexHow We HopeHow We ReasonHuman CloningHuman Development, Language and the Future of MankindHuman EnhancementHuman Evolution, Reproduction, and MoralityHuman GoodnessHuman Identity and BioethicsHuman NatureHuman NatureHuman Nature and the Limits of ScienceHuman-Built WorldHumanismHumanism, What's That?HumanityHumans, Animals, MachinesHumeHumeHumeHume on Motivation and VirtueHume's True ScepticismHume’s Moral Philosophy and Contemporary PsychologyHusserlHystoriesI Am Dynamite!I of the VortexI Was WrongIdeas that MatterIdentifying the MindIdentity and Agency in Cultural WorldsIgnorance and ImaginationIllnessImagination and Its PathologiesImagination and the Meaningful BrainImagining NumbersImmortal RemainsImproving Nature?In Defense of an Evolutionary Concept of HealthIn Defense of SentimentalityIn Love With LifeIn Praise of Athletic BeautyIn Praise of DesireIn Praise of Natural PhilosophyIn Praise of the WhipIn Pursuit of HappinessIn Search of HappinessIn the Name of GodIn the Name of IdentityIn the Space of ReasonsIn the SwarmIn Two MindsInclusive EthicsIncompatibilism's AllureIndividual Differences in Conscious ExperienceInfinity and PerspectiveInformation ArtsInformed Consent in Medical ResearchIngmar Bergman, Cinematic PhilosopherInhuman ThoughtsInner PresenceInsanityIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntelligent VirtueIntentionIntentionality, Deliberation and AutonomyIntentions and IntentionalityIntentions and IntentionalityInterpreting MindsInterpreting NietzscheIntroducing Greek PhilosophyIntrospection and ConsciousnessIntrospection VindicatedIntuition, Imagination, and Philosophical MethodologyIntuitionismInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIrrationalityIs Academic Feminism Dead?Is It Me or My Meds?Is Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Is Oedipus Online?Is Science Neurotic?Is Science Value Free?Is the Visual World a Grand Illusion?Is There a Duty to Die?Issues in Philosophical CounselingJacques LacanJacques RancièreJacques RanciereJean-Paul SartreJohn McDowellJohn SearleJohn Searle's Ideas About Social RealityJohn Stuart MillJohn Stuart Mill and the Writing of CharacterJoint AttentionJokesJonathan EdwardsJudging and UnderstandingJustice for ChildrenJustice in RobesJustice, Luck, and KnowledgeKantKant and MiltonKant and the Fate of AutonomyKant and the Limits of AutonomyKant and the Role of Pleasure in Moral ActionKant on Freedom, Law, and HappinessKant on Moral AutonomyKant's Anatomy of EvilKant's Anatomy of the Intelligent MindKant's Theory of VirtueKarl JaspersKarl PopperKarl Popper, Science and EnlightenmentKey Concepts in PhilosophyKierkegaardKierkegaard as PhenomenologistKierkegaard's Concept of DespairKierkegaard's MuseKinds of MindsKinds, Things, and StuffKnowing EmotionsKnowing, Knowledge and BeliefsKnowledge MonopoliesKnowledge, Belief, and CharacterKnowledge, Possibility, and ConsciousnessLacanLack of CharacterLack of CharacterLanguageLanguage in ContextLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Culture, and MindLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw and the BrainLaw, Liberty, and PsychiatryLaws, Mind, and Free WillLeaving YouLectures on the History of Political PhilosophyLevelling the Playing FieldLiberal Education in a Knowledge SocietyLiberatory PsychiatryLife and ActionLife at the Texas State Lunatic Asylum, 1857-1997Life Is Not a Game of PerfectLife of the MindLife's FormLife's ValuesLife, Death, & MeaningLife, Death, and Meaning: Key Philosophical Readings on the Big Questions Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of UtilityLife, Sex, and IdeasLight in the Dark RoomLike a Splinter in Your MindLiving and Dying WellLiving NarrativeLiving Outside Mental IllnessLiving with DarwinLiving With One’s PastLockeLocke LockeLogic and the Art of Memory Loneliness in Philosophy, Psychology, and LiteratureLooking for SpinozaLooking for The StrangerLost in DialogueLost SoulsLOT 2LoveLoveLove's ConfusionsLove's VisionLove, Friendship, and the SelfLove, Sex & TragedyLuckyLudwig WittgensteinLustLyingMachine ConsciousnessMad for FoucaultMad TravelersMade with WordsMadness And Death In PhilosophyMadness and DemocracyMadness at HomeMadness Is CivilizationMaking Natural KnowledgeMaking Sense of EvolutionMaking Sense of Freedom and ResponsibilityMaking the DSM-5Making the Social WorldMaking TruthMale Female EmailMan, Beast, and ZombieMandated Reporting of Suspected Child AbuseManiaManic Depression and CreativityMapping the Edges and the In-betweenMapping the Future of BiologyMarcus AureliusMaster PassionsMatters of the MindMe++Meaning and Moral OrderMeaning and Value in a Secular AgeMeaning in LifeMeaning in Life and Why It MattersMeaning, Basic Self-Knowledge, and MindMeanings of ArtMeasuring HappinessMeasuring PsychopathologyMedia MadnessMedical Enhancement and PosthumanityMedical NihilismMedical ReasoningMedicine and Philosophy in Classical AntiquityMedicine of the PersonMedicine, Mental Health, Religion, Science and Well-BeingMeditations on Self-Discipline and FailureMelancholy And the Care of the SoulMelancholy and the Otherness of GodMementoMemory and NarrativeMental ActionsMental CausationMental Causation and OntologyMental HealthMental Health At The CrossroadsMental Health Policy in BritainMerit, Meaning, and Human BondageMerleau-PontyMerleau-Ponty and the Possibilities of PhilosophyMetacognition and Theory of MindMetacreationMetaethical SubjectivismMetaethicsMetal and FleshMetaphors of MemoryMetapoliticsMethods in MindMichel FoucaultMidlifeMill's UtilitarianismMindMindMindMind and ConsciousnessMind and CosmosMind and MechanismMind GamesMind in a Physical WorldMind in Everyday Life and Cognitive ScienceMind in LifeMind the BodyMind TimeMind's LandscapeMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMind, Brain, and Free WillMind, Reason and ImaginationMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds and PersonsMinds, Brains, and LawMinds, Ethics, and ConditionalsMindshapingMindsightMindworldsMirror, MirrorMixed FeelingsMockingbird YearsModels of the SelfModern Social ImaginariesModern Theories of JusticeModernity and SubjectivityModernity and TechnologyMoody Minds DistemperedMoral BrainsMoral DimensionsMoral FailureMoral ImaginationMoral LiteracyMoral MachinesMoral ParticularismMoral PsychologyMoral Psychology and Human AgencyMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Moral Psychology: Volume IVMoral RepairMoral Responsibility and Alternative PossibilitiesMoral TribesMoral Value and Human DiversityMorality and Self-InterestMorality in a Natural WorldMorality, Moral Luck and ResponsibilityMotherhoodMotive and RightnessMoving Beyond Prozac, DSM, and the New PsychiatryMultiple Analogies in Science and PhilosophyMultiple Identities & False MemoriesMusic, Madness, and the Unworking of LanguageMy Brain Made Me Do ItMy Double UnveiledMy WayNarrativeNarrative and IdentityNarrative MedicineNarrative PsychiatryNarrative Theory and the Cognitive SciencesNatural Ethical FactsNatural Kinds and Conceptual ChangeNatural MindsNatural-Born CybogsNaturalism and the First-Person PerspectiveNaturalism and the Human ConditionNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalized BioethicsNaturalizing the MindNatureNature and NarrativeNear Death ExperienceNeither Bad nor MadNeither Victim nor SurvivorNeuro-Philosophy and the Healthy MindNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNeuroexistentialismNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neurophilosophy at WorkNeurophilosophy of Free WillNeuropoliticsNeuropsychoanalysis in PracticeNeuroscience and PhilosophyNew Essays on the Explanation of ActionNew Philosophy for a New MediaNew Versions of VictimsNew Waves in Philosophy of ActionNietzscheNietzsche and Buddhist PhilosophyNietzsche and PsychotherapyNietzsche and Suffered Social HistoriesNietzsche on Ethics and PoliticsNietzsche's TherapyNietzsche, Culture and EducationNietzsche: The Man and His PhilosophyNihil UnboundNoir AnxietyNormative EthicsNormativityNorms of NatureNotebooks 1951-1959Notes Toward a Performative Theory of AssemblyNothing So AbsurdOblivionOn AnxietyOn ApologyOn Being AuthenticOn Being AuthenticOn BeliefOn BetrayalOn BullshitOn DelusionOn DesireOn EmotionsOn HashishOn Human NatureOn Human RightsOn Loving Our EnemiesOn Nature and LanguageOn PersonalityOn ReflectionOn Romantic LoveOn the EmotionsOn the Freud WatchOn the Government of the LivingOn the Human ConditionOn the InternetOn the Meaning of LifeOn the Philosophy of LawOn the Pragmatics of CommunicationOn the Punitive SocietyOn TruthOn Virtue EthicsOn What MattersOn What We Owe to Each OtherOne Hundred DaysOnflowOnly a Promise of HappinessOntology of ConsciousnessOpen MindedOpen Your EyesOrgans without BodiesOther MindsOur Last Great IllusionOur Own MindsOur Posthuman FutureOur StoriesOut of Its MindOut of Our HeadsOxford Guide to the MindOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Studies in Experimental PhilosophyOxford Studies in Normative EthicsOxford Studies in Normative Ethics, Volume 7Oxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPanic DisorderPanpsychismPanpsychism in the WestPartialityPassionate EnginesPassionate EnginesPathologies of BeliefPathologies of ReasonPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perceiving the WorldPerception & CognitionPerception and Basic BeliefsPerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPerceptual ExperiencePerfecting VirtuePerplexities of ConsciousnessPersistencePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal IdentityPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonal Identity and Fractured SelvesPersonhood and Health CarePersonsPersons and BodiesPersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPersons, Souls and DeathPerspectives on ImitationPerspectives on PragmatismPessimismPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenal ConsciousnessPhenomenal IntentionalityPhenomenologyPhenomenology and ExistentialismPhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhenomenology of IllnessPhilosophersPhilosophers on MusicPhilosophers without GodsPhilosophical CounselingPhilosophical Counselling and the UnconsciousPhilosophical DevicesPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical History and the Problem of ConsciousnessPhilosophical Issues in PharmaceuticsPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in Psychiatry IIPhilosophical MethodologyPhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophical Myths of the FallPhilosophical Perspectives on DepictionPhilosophical Perspectives on Technology and PsychiatryPhilosophical PracticePhilosophical Reflections on DisabilityPhilosophizing About Sex Philosophizing the EverydayPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy and LivingPhilosophy and PsychiatryPhilosophy and PsychotherapyPhilosophy and Science FictionPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the Interpretation of Pop CulturePhilosophy and the Moving ImagePhilosophy and the NeurosciencesPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy As FictionPhilosophy BitesPhilosophy Bites BackPhilosophy for Counselling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy for LifePhilosophy in a New CenturyPhilosophy in an Age of SciencePhilosophy in Children's LiteraturePhilosophy in the Roman EmpirePhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of Action from Suarez to AnscombePhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BodyPhilosophy of Film and Motion PicturesPhilosophy of LovePhilosophy of Love, Sex, and MarriagePhilosophy of Love, Sex, and Marriage: An IntroductionPhilosophy of MedicinePhilosophy of MindPhilosophy of Mind and CognitionPhilosophy of Personal Identity and Multiple PersonalityPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy of Public HealthPhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of Sex and LovePhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhilosophy of the Social SciencesPhilosophy on TapPhilosophy PracticePhilosophy the Day after TomorrowPhilosophy Within Its Proper BoundsPhilosophy's Role in Counseling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhilosophy, Politics, DemocracyPhotography and PhilosophyPhysical RealizationPhysicalism and Its DiscontentsPhysicalism and Mental CausationPhysicalism, or Something Near EnoughPhysician-Assisted DyingPillar of SaltPin-up GrrrlsPlant MindsPlatoPlatoPlato, Not Prozac!Platonic Ethics, Old and NewPleasurePluralistic CasuistryPolarities of ExperiencesPolitical EmotionsPopper, Objectivity and the Growth of KnowledgePornPorn StudiesPornographyPornography, Sex, and FeminismPortrait of the Psychiatrist as a Young ManPositive NihilismPost-TruthPostcolonial DisordersPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPower and the SelfPower SplitPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical ConflictsPractical Identity and Narrative AgencyPractical PhilosophyPractical RulesPractical Tortoise RaisingPractically ProfoundPracticing Feminist Ethics in PsychologyPragmatic BioethicsPragmatismPragmatism, Old And NewPraise and BlamePredicative MindsPreferences and Well-BeingPrescriptions for the MindPresocraticsPrimary and Secondary QualitiesPrimates and PhilosophersPrimitive ColorsPrivacyPrivileged AccessProblems in MindProblems of RationalityProzac As a Way of LifeProzac BacklashProzac on the CouchPsyche and EthosPsyche and SomaPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric Cultures ComparedPsychiatric Diagnosis and ClassificationPsychiatric EthicsPsychiatric HegemonyPsychiatric PowerPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry and Philosophy of SciencePsychiatry and ReligionPsychiatry as a Human SciencePsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry in SocietyPsychiatry in the New MilleniumPsychiatry in the Scientific ImagePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsycho-Physical Dualism TodayPsychoanalysis and Narrative MedicinePsychoanalysis and the Philosophy of SciencePsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychology and PhilosophyPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology, Psychotherapy, Psychoanalysis, and the Politics of Human RelationshipsPsychotherapy and ConfidentialityPsychotherapy As PraxisPublic PhilosophyPunishmentPure ImmanencePurple HazePursuing MeaningQuality of Life and Human DifferenceQueer PhilosophyQuestions for FreudQuestions for FreudQuine and Davidson on Language, Thought and RealityRaceRace in 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Interest in the "therapeutic" aspects of Friedrich Nietzsche's thought is growing in academic circles, after years of toiling in the shadows of more traditional philosophical interpretations in the tertiary scholarship. Studies such as Michael Ure's Nietzsche's Therapy: Self-Cultivation in the Middle Works (2008), Daniel Ahern's The Smile of Tragedy: Nietzsche and the Art of Virtue (2012), and Horst Hutter and Eli Friedland ed. Nietzsche's Therapeutic Teaching: For Individuals and Culture (2013) advance the general thesis that Nietzsche intended to help nineteenth-century readers cultivate—even rehabilitate—their spiritual lives in the face of daunting and long-established social and historical challenges. This general thesis is shared by Jeffrey M. Jackson in his 2017 book, Nietzsche and Suffered Social Histories: Genealogy and Convalescence but, to his credit, Jackson offers an innovative twist on this theme: the therapeutic work to be done must not be thought to lie upon individuals who heroically (or not) encounter the demands of self-overcoming and self-cultivation, working in isolation against the pressure of social norms. Rather, because this natural history of values is "suffered" collectively, the task of coping with that history must also be shared. Jackson's thesis is simple and powerful, but the full meaning of it must be worked out, which this study attempts with mixed results. For Jackson, negotiating the implications of "suffered history" in the Nietzschean vein is best done by interpreting the philosopher's project of "genealogy" as one of seeing that human subjects and their history of values have a reflexive relationship, and by interpreting "convalescence"—the work of coping with that reflexivity—as the logical inference following the genealogy. Yet, there's no consideration here for what Nietzsche says on behalf of self-cultivation, on the ancient practice of askesis, for example—of the training of bodily instincts and spirit—or whether the challenge today might be to reclaim askesis as a social goal without reconciling the principles and methodologies of that training with a degenerate morality—that is to say, a morality that is hostile to a regenerative and healthy life. Instead, Jackson's study seems eager to ontologize "suffered history" as both trauma and a negativity to be negotiated and endured.
The study is composed of five chapters. The Introduction (chapter one) alludes to a set of issues that will emerge as the book's major themes. The analysis here is dense and not easy to unpack, but the basic premises seem to posit that Nietzsche shows 1) the history of values and human subjectivity are "reflexive." That is, values are created over long periods of time from human (and even pre-human) perspectives, and human subjectivity is determined by those values, such that values and humans have always been co-constitutive and continue to be so. This reflexivity makes the investigation of the history of values a rather complicated task because in order to reflect upon that history fully, one must also reflect upon the investigator herself, as well as the historical track leading up to the moment of any reflection. Such insight can never be whole and complete. 2) For these reasons, reflexivity is not understood so much as it is "suffered." 3) The quality of such reflection may, however, be assessed in the following manner: there is the sort of reflection that more or less "negotiates" reflexivity in ways that follow "genealogy" and "convalescence" as Nietzsche is said to conceptualize the terms. There is, moreover, the more common and less desirable sort of reflection that fails to negotiate reflexivity and thus remains mired in what Nietzsche is said to mean by the terms "ressentiment," "bad conscience," and the "ascetic ideal." Nietzsche, for his part, is said to interrogate "social history" with the insight that any subject conducting such an investigation will itself be determined by that history. Thus, Jackson detects "a reflexivity between reproduction of social crisis and the reproduction of subjectivity, such that social critique must also be a critique of the subjectivity that is socially reproduced and which engages in that critique" (1). Jackson is correct to observe that Nietzsche holds "the highest concepts" (such as good/evil, good/bad, truth/lies and so forth) to be impossible without the human world and that this world is symbiotically framed by these concepts in such a way that the individual is determined by them (commonly cited references to this insight may be found in the essay "On Truth and Lies in a Non-Moral Sense" and in the chapter "'Reason' in Philosophy," section 4 from Twilight of the Idols). Because of reflexivity in the determination of values and subjects, Jackson claims that for Nietzsche "reflection on social crisis implies a need for the self-critique of reflection that is a symptom of the suffered crisis it attempts to conceptualize," making thinking itself to be "a symptom of suffered social histories" (1). Reflection, in this view, is always partial, given that there is no unbiased origin from which to begin to reflect. The measure of the "self-critique of reflection," whether or not reflection is emancipatory, can be found in Nietzsche's concepts such as genealogy and convalescence (when emancipatory reflection is accomplished), and ressentiment, slave morality, bad conscience and the ascetic ideal (when it is not). These two "paradigmatic forms" are often "subtly intermingled." As tools for conceptual analysis, however, it is claimed that this latter form finds "truth in what is familiar, simplified, ahistorical, and socially shared" (5), while the other form of reflection carries the possibility of "transforming society" along these emancipatory paths. Because subjectivity is "imbricated…within suffered relational histories," true analysis of subjectivity's imbrication discovers it to be "symptomatic" of "suffered social scenes" (22).
An implication from this treatment is that Nietzsche "can be read as contributing to social theory" in so far as genealogy implies convalescence, which is said to be the "negotiation" with suffered history that nevertheless admits to no subjective choice nor does it unfold in "ethical reasoning." What follows, however, is that "reason's critique of itself does not merely imply a need to think differently, but rather a need for new social conditions which would facilitate convalescence" (5).
The work summons various late-nineteenth-and-twentieth-century thinkers to function as "lenses" and as points of contrast in order to bring this reading into sharper focus. Jackson compares Nietzsche's insights into suffered social history with those, for example, of Marx and Freud. For each of these, a suffered sociality "founds the subject." For Marx, that founding occurs through the accumulation of property and the division of labor; for Freud, it happens through the child's transition from family care to socialization. For Nietzsche, the founding of the subject is said to happen in "the violent relation between slaves and masters, and the imposition of the social straightjacket." For each, this suffered sociality repeats itself as an "amoral, more or less traumatic meaninglessness" (22-3). Trauma then becomes "naturalized" through social normalization and the subject's bad conscience, all of which tends to "reproduce the status quo" in subsequent analyses. In contrast to Jackson's analysis, those merely "theoretical appeals" to Nietzsche found in Ricoeur, Kofmann, and Foucault "may gesture" in the direction of coping with suffered histories, but they do so "in ways that seem to occlude their own vulnerability to excessive history" and to simply reproduce past traumas (38).
Jackson struggles with a prose to account for the many ways in which the term "suffered" is to be thought in this analysis. Historical "scenes" are said to be suffered, rather than understood as causally implicated, when "the more or less traumatic excess that is constitutive" of them are primary. "The excessive character of social history is primarily suffered and defended against, not merely 'understood,' 'confronted,' or not 'understood' or not 'confronted'" (32). "The ambiguity of the scene as being both remembered and constructed not only implies the interpretability of the scene, but also the excessive, relational materiality of the scene; what counts is how the excess is negotiated and that points to an ability that cannot be accounted for by a subjective trait, action or sensibility" (24). Finally, "one's ability to negotiate this excess is itself socio-historically conditioned" (32). Due to the fact that reflexivity is primarily suffered, "the fixated subject is not stuck in the theoretical as such [i.e., it is not a matter of whether one remains 'metaphysical' in one's worldview] but rather [one is stuck] in a particular form of defensive mechanism expressive of an inability to bear the negativity of history" (33).
After this somewhat opaque introduction, Chapter Two, "Convalescence, Mourning and Sociability," examines Nietzsche's use of the term Genesung (convalescence) in greater detail. This chapter, in some ways, is the most successful of the entire study. It begins by comparing the key concept under consideration with Freud's notion of "mourning." Jackson suggests that convalescence is "a model for a gradual suffered working-through of the cultural legacy of ressentiment" (43). With this definition, Jackson briefly considers possible difficulties in drawing the comparison at hand—that mourning seems to be a psychological process oriented socially and in relation to past events, while convalescence seems to be a physical process oriented solitarily and towards the future. Each of these challenges are quickly met, with emphasis placed on the idea that convalescence is "a celebration of singularity" (46), not of solitude. As such, convalescence seeks "de-idealization"—that is, "the gradual detachment from socially enforced idealism which has been internalized" such that one tends to see oneself (to put it in Nietzsche's words, deftly cited) "as equal to any nobody" (48). For Jackson, Nietzsche's struggle against idealism is the struggle for singularity in confrontation with socially mandated forms of ressentiment which create communities of "any nobodies" via each subject's internalization of these forms.
Jackson's textual references supporting these claims, however, do not fully show how convalescence is socially engaged and how this engagement squares with what Nietzsche clearly says on behalf of his own solitude. Drawing primarily from Nietzsche's 1886 Prefaces for the second edition publications of his works and from his novel, Thus Spoke Zarathustra, Jackson demonstrates indeed that convalescence is an important theme developing in Nietzsche's work at this time. However, the evidence seems to show that convalescence is a solitary track for the one sickened by herd morality. In 1888's Ecce Homo Nietzsche claims that solitude is a necessary condition for convalescence: " My humanity is a constant self-overcoming.—But I need solitude [Einsamkeit], by which I mean convalescence [Genesung], a return to myself, the breath of a free, light, playful air…The whole of my Zarathustra is a dithyramb to solitude" ("Why I am so wise," section 8). Nietzsche's personal letters to family and friends at this time also boast of his blessed Einsamkeit. Moreover, from the novel's opening chapter one reads that Zarathustra enjoyed ten years of solitude before returning to humanity to share his health and wisdom. Indeed, solitude will be sought and enjoyed again and again by Zarathustra throughout the novel. So, what then can be said of Nietzsche's apparent longing for solitude and its expression in Zarathustra? Jackson interprets the novel's climatic chapter, "The Convalescent," to reveal that Zarathustra too is infected with ressentiment, which had been adumbrated in "his desires to teach men, to lead, to be followed, to prepare the way for the Overman" (57) and which becomes clear in his haughty attitude when conversing with his animals (52-3). The way to make sense of Nietzsche's conceptual development of convalescence, not as a solitary experience, but rather as shared suffering is to interpret it as a kind of mourning in the face of this ressentiment, in the way formulated by Freud: "when [Nietzsche] proclaims in Thus Spoke Zarathustra that the earth shall be a place for convalescence, he seems to imply the possibility for new types of convalescent culture. Thus, if the valorization of singularity [not solitude] is central, one might say that Nietzsche's advocacy of convalescence within a broader de-idealizing critique of culture clearly resembles Freud's explicit linking of mourning to group psychology in the later cultural texts" (46-7).
The chapter concludes by contrasting Jackson's interpretation to those formulated by Derrida, Deleuze, and others. According to Jackson, Derrida simply compares Nietzsche to dogmatizing, idealist philosophers without endeavoring to show how (for Nietzsche) idealism emerges in ressentiment nor how it could be endured in convalescence. For Jackson, "convalescence is the condition of possibility of the sensibility Derrida valorizes" (56). Not even Derrida's deconstructions from "play" and "dance" adequately express "the suffered achievement of convalescence" (60). As for Deleuze, the well-known analysis of "reactive" and "active" forces expressive of Nietzsche's "will to power" finds the former "transcending itself" in the "affirmation" of the negative, which is said to be the completion of reactive forces in nihilism. For Jackson, Deleuze's analysis "occludes the essential element of suffering in Nietzsche in favor of an appeal to a sort of abstract animism" (59). The danger here, according to Jackson, is that the fundamental task of coping with suffering is reduced to "a spontaneous moment of creation" rather than appreciated for what it truly is: "a gradual detachment from the cultural norms implicit in the subject" (59). Herein, seemingly, lies the social aspect of convalescence: social arrangements should be judged negatively if their coercive determinants are so overbearing that they stifle convalescence. Such arrangements should be encouraged when they grant “suffering…the time, place and sociality to bear itself” (63). According to Jackson, the logic of convalescence is all the same whether one thinks of coercion (as Nietzsche did) in terms of Christianity and its secular dissemination in modern society or in terms of other totalitarian structures (63).
In Chapter Three, "Relationality, Trauma, and the Genealogy of the Subject," the focus turns to Nietzsche's development of genealogy as a tool for encountering ressentiment and bad conscience in terms of the subject's standing with other-realities. Freud is again said to be the key who will unlock "a more coherent account" of "the proto-psychoanalytic character" of Nietzsche's "Genealogy and other works" (70). We learn now that "central" to Jackson's thesis is the claim that aspects of Nietzsche's thought "prefigure" relational psychoanalysis, the idea developed later in Freud that drills down on the subject's "interactional field" of relationships as the researcher's "basic unit of study" and that discovers loss, melancholy, and trauma to be necessary conditions for the possibility of the subject's emerging state. In Freud's relational psychoanalysis, "[c]onscience is the symptom of the melancholic response to the loss of the parent-child relationship. The trauma of losing our childhood and parental care produces a conscience as a defense mechanism by which I internalize the parental voice and feel its pressure as an attempt to maintain the love of the parents" (70-1). Freud's thesis offers Jackson a "more coherent account of liberation" in Nietzsche's Genealogy, reasoning against the "common view" that liberation from social repression is not the solitary achievement of the self-cultivating wanderer. Rather, liberation is possible only as a "socio-historical process," given that repression too happens in this manner (71). Even "pre-subjective" factors accounting for the subject's drive towards liberation are "imbricated in the subject's histories" and should be interrogated as such (72).
Jackson summarizes the First Essay of the Genealogy by reminding readers that for Nietzsche value-laden concepts such as "good," "bad," and "evil," are socially and historically contingent, which Nietzsche attempts to demonstrate with etymologies of the terms. At first, these concepts were grounded pragmatically in the social standing of nobles, but they became spiritualized by ancient priests who discovered society's "slaves" to be convenient allies for the dissemination of their views and for increasing the priests' social power. Jackson casts this familiar story within the context of the slaves' shared social history. In this initial spiritual revolt, slaves found "a vehicle for their ressentiment toward the rulers and toward themselves as embodied, suffering, socio-historical beings" (77). For this reason, Jackson emphasizes "the concrete socio-historical conditions" of the slaves' uprising before that revolt achieved victory through abstraction as a spiritual "type." As an abstraction, "slave morality" is merely symptomatic of an internalized incapacity to work through the concrete reality of oppression in a concrete way. Although the slaves' internalization and spiritualization of values has made human beings more interesting—such that a return to the original position of the nobles is impossible—they have done so by making the human being sick with trauma, self-loathing and anxiety. One of the most troubling outcomes of this history is the prevalence of the concept of "free will," which operates in ways to preserve the herd—a symptom of the failure to negotiate suffered social histories (79-81). In Nietzsche's analysis, "free will" is one of the "great errors" of false causality, with which we hide from ourselves a crueler and more disturbing fundamental human trait—that we sadistically take pleasure in punishing one another and ourselves ("The Four Great Errors," section 7, from Twilight of the Idols).
Jackson's discussion of the Second Essay of the Genealogy reiterates many of these themes: the origin of subjectivity is attributed to self-torture, while the social process of convalescence requires "bearing our suffered singularity amidst the social pressure to obliterate it, [while] creating new social conditions would facilitate convalescence" (81). Nietzsche speculates that conscience originally formed in the violent creditor-debtor relationship, which implies for Jackson that we all bear the imprint of the two sides of this coin. The material character and concreteness of Nietzsche's history of conscience further implies that the violence attributed to conscience-formation cannot be wholly redeemed by religion or other universalist narratives. We are simply tasked with suffering and negotiating that history, while bad conscience is symptomatic of the trauma suffered in this task.
As might be clear by now, Jackson wishes to go beyond "Nietzsche's own terminology" (84) by replacing the language of cruelty—and the pleasure experienced in this cruelty—with the language of suffering and the traumatic loss of past ways of being. "To account for this difference" between mere conscience, which is pragmatically aware of social needs, and trauma-inducing bad conscience "merely as the result of an instinct for cruelty directed inward would occlude the loss that constitutes our suffered social histories" (85). Thus, "[o]ne must read between the lines of Nietzsche's suggestion" that the origin of conscience is the desire for cruelty turned inward in order to appreciate that conscience "is more fundamentally…a traumatic symptom" (96). For Jackson, reading between the lines in these ways is a matter of necessity. Accounts of Nietzsche's attempts to replace the idealistic grounds of morality with natural and historical grounds can "only be coherent" if it accounts for "the more or less traumatic character of our social histories" and for the emergence of the genealogical interrogator (87). Jackson admits that the required methodological acumen in Nietzsche-reception for reading Nietzsche between the lines is rarely achieved. In its absence, a mystification of "some magical power" beyond suffered consciousness and a general confusion about Nietzsche's accomplishments and possible contribution to social theory predominates that reception. Meeting the demands of such acumen, on the other hand, often demands seeing what may only show itself implicitly in Nietzsche's investigations (in loss, for example, or in the "fetishization of ressentiment" in social phenomenon such as love, social intercourses, and attitudes about death). Rather than sublimate suffered history in concepts such as free will or in the longing for the reduction of pain or for victimhood, pity and so forth, "one should speak of a transformation of culture into mournful or convalescent forms…sheltered from obligatory forms of ressentiment" (98-9).
Chapters Four and Five follow the pattern of interpreting the work of Nietzsche through the "lenses" of later conceptualists. In Chapter Four, "Nietzsche's Negative Dialectic: Ascetic Ideal and the Status Quo," Theodore Adorno is summoned to provide the theoretical context for interpreting Nietzsche's implications for suffered history: "Adorno provides another frame from which to reflect on the sociality of metaphysics and in doing so an alternate path to approach Nietzsche's critique of metaphysics" (123). The focus here will be on the Third Essay from Nietzsche's Genealogy: "[t]he connections between Nietzsche's analysis of the ascetic priest and 'the Culture Industry' are undeniable" (134). In effect, however, not much has been advanced beyond the author's interpretation of Nietzsche through Freud and (to a lesser extent) Marx. We are now encouraged to think in terms of "identity" and "non-identity," of "constellations" instead of historical "scenes," and the like, but the outcome is the same: "[t]o reflect on constellations would be to bear the non-identical, to deviate from the fetishization of identity thinking and the fetishized system of equivalences, which works as a culturally shared defense mechanism against the non-identical' (123). Adorno is said to be useful in advancing Jackson's analysis of Nietzsche in that Adorno's Negative Dialectics is "the form of thinking in which the concept bears its own suffered social histories, in which the concept…bears the history of which it is a symptom" (108-9). Jackson finds similarities in Adorno's critiques of identity and in Nietzsche's primordial creditor-debtor relationship, even though Adorno himself fails to see beyond the subject-centered dynamism implicit in Nietzsche's will to power. Nevertheless, both Nietzsche and Adorno are said to show how "contemporary ideology subjectivizes suffered history" (136).
In the final chapter, "Working-Through Perspectives in Nietzsche and Object Relations Psychoanalysis," Melanie Klein and D.W. Winnicott are enlisted to show that Nietzsche anticipated the basic themes suggested in the title—that "suffered relationality" is "the genesis of subjectivity," a position which "inverts the metaphysical view that assumes forms of subjectivity endowed with animistic power" (143). Moreover, it is claimed that Object Relations Theory provides "a context from which to bring similar aspects of Nietzsche's fragmentary writing into focus" (149). Here, a parallel is drawn between Klein's analysis of the infant child's pre-subjective experiences of its "split-world" encounter with its mother's breasts and Nietzsche's development of convalescence (150-1). Nietzsche's provocations towards convalescence regarding the "death of God" follow lines similar to the infant's struggle in moments of "partial reflexivity." Meeting both challenges in healthy ways require a "good stable care-giving environment…within which wholeness may be borne, bit by bit, slowly without defense, without the need for libidinally charged, de-infused bipolarity" (156). Convalescence, then, is like the experience of "a healthy playful infant whose environment would facilitate the bearing of anxiety of motile negotiation of wholeness without trauma" (159). Similarly, the section on Winnicott focuses on the phenomenon of play as "transitional," negotiating the problems of emerging subjectivity and encounters with objectivity. Some of the "most obvious" concepts linking Nietzsche and Winnicott are said to concern the concept of play (160), offering the child "a protected environment which allows the crossing of borders of self and other, of idea and reality—without a bad conscience" (162). Bad environments, on the other hand, sustain and exacerbate trauma. Hence, as with convalescence, the child's transitional experience in play is said to require a good environment to facilitate a healthy period of growth in what confronts the subject as a watershed moment in its development.
Jackson's study brings light to what certainly seems like an important concept in Nietzsche's later thought: the idea of "convalescence," which is occasionally heralded by Nietzsche with great fanfare (as he was apt to do with other conceptual innovations) but which is unfortunately underdeveloped in his writings. With Nietzsche, there is no sustained discussion of "convalescence," as one finds for example with concepts such as the "Apolline and Dionysian worldviews," "master and slave moralities," "bad conscience" and so forth. Nor is there even much analysis of convalescence in the secondary literature, as there is for example with "genealogy" and "the death of God" (one notable exception to this observation, overlooked by Jackson, is the work on convalescence by Gianni Vattimo). Hence, reading Nietzsche's conceptualization of convalescence as a "proto-psychoanalytic" tool for interrogating and coping with our "shared suffered history" would seem to hold promise for understanding previously overlooked aspects of Nietzsche's thought. However, Jackson's study confronts the reader with a number of difficulties, some of which I have already noted. The biggest challenge emerges in the very plausibility of the notion of interpreting the work of one thinker "through the lenses" of others, which this study attempts to do almost exclusively. There is very little offered in the way of Nietzsche-scholarship here: there are hardly any references to his historical context, influences, notebooks, or correspondences. There are only a few brief notes and comments on Nietzsche-reception. The result is that this study gives contemporary Nietzsche scholars only the author's conceptual associations, which are occasionally interesting but not always persuasive. The author's frequent use of the subjunctive mood when drawing inferences from his examinations appears to signal an awareness of these hermeneutic problems. Nevertheless, the study's focus on Nietzsche's interest in the evolutionary history of the human psyche is consistent with the growing interest in Nietzsche's usefulness for conjuring a post-metaphysical philosophical "therapeutics," and on this score it offers innovative takes on some key, diagnostic concepts in Nietzsche's satchel for post-metaphysical convalescents.
© 2019 Dale Wilkerson
Dale Wilkerson, University of Texas, Rio Grande Valley